Molecular Fate Mapping Atlas

Browse webpages dedicated to embryonic tissue types and development of the definitive organ systems. Each page contains an overview. Terms with a star (☆) indicate pages with in-depth written descriptions, associated supplemental figures, in situ hybridization images and sequences for transcripts validated by WISH.

 

▻ anatomical system

▻ terminally differentiated cell

▻ organ

▻ definitive tissue

▻ developing anatomical structure

▻ regenerating anatomical structure

▻ organism subdivision

 


 

anatomical system

termdefinition
digestive system ☆Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.
integumental system ☆Connected anatomical system that forms a barrier between an animal and its environment. In vertebrates, the integumental system consists of the epidermis, dermis plus associated glands and adnexa such as hair and scales. In invertebrates, the integumental system may include cuticle.
musculature system ☆Total musculature of the planarian body.
neoblast compartment ☆A heterogeneous population of pluripotent, somatic adult stem cells and lineage primed progenitors that are required for maintenance and regeneration of all cell types in planaria, including the germline.
nervous system ☆The nervous system is an organ system containing predominantly neuron and glial cells. In bilaterally symmetrical organisms, it is arranged in a network of tree-like structures connected to a central body. The main functions of the nervous system are to regulate and control body functions, and to receive sensory input, process this information, and generate behavior [CUMBO].
Expand nervous system child relations
        |––– central nervous system The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the neural tube derivatives: the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates it includes central ganglia plus nerve cord.
        |––– peripheral nervous system A major division of the nervous system that contains nerves which connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands.
renal system ☆The renal system is an anatomical system that maintains fluid balance and contributes to electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and disposal of nitrogenous waste products.
reproductive systemAnatomical system that has as its parts the organs concerned with reproduction.
secretory systemAnatomical system that has as its parts cells and glands devoted to the discharge of substances such as mucus.
sensory systemAnatomical system that overlaps the nervous system and is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information.
visual system ☆The sensory system subserving the sense of vision.

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terminally differentiated cell

termdefinition
electrically responsive cellA cell whose function is determined by its response to an electric signal.
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        |––– muscle cell A mature contractile cell, commonly known as a myocyte. This cell has as part of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.
                |–––––– circular muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed around the dorsoventral axis. Upon regeneration, these are thought to be produced de novo in the blastema.
                |–––––– diagonal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed diagonally along the anteroposterior axis.
                |–––––– longitudinal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. Upon regeneration, these muscles are thought to be established from truncated pre-existing fibers.
                        |––––––––– inner longitudinal muscle fiber Inner most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thicker than the outer longitudinal muscle fibers. The pattern of these muscles differs along the dorsoventral axis, with the dorsal arrangement converging at the central zone of the anterior pole. The ventral arrangement is more parallel or may diverge slightly as it approaches the ventral pole.
                        |––––––––– outer longitudinal muscle fiber Outer most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thinner than the inner longitudinal muscle fibers.
                |–––––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                        |––––––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                        |––––––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
                |–––––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
                |–––––– temporary embryonic pharynx circular muscle fiber Differentiated muscle cell present in a circular muscle fiber of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                |–––––– temporary embryonic pharynx radial muscle cell Differentiated radial muscle cell present in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
electrically signaling cellA cell that initiates an electrical signal and passes that signal to another cell.
Expand electrically signaling cell child relations
        |––– neuron The basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
                |–––––– afferent neuron A neuron which conveys sensory information centrally from the periphery.
                        |––––––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                                |–––––––––––– cintillo+ sensory neuron A subset of sensory neurons located along the dorsal head margin.
                                |–––––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
                |–––––– central nervous system neuron Any neuron that is part of a central nervous system.
                        |––––––––– TrpA+ central nervous system neuron A subset of TrpA+ neurons, located medially in the cephalic ganglia, whose formation is dependent on function of runt-1 and ap2." [] {comment="PMID:22549959}
                |–––––– commissural neuron A neuron that has an axon which crosses the midline.
                |–––––– efferent neuron A neuron which sends impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
                        |––––––––– motor neuron An efferent neuron that passes from the central nervous system or a ganglion toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes or inhibits movement.
                                |–––––––––––– excitatory motor neuron A motor neuron that is capable of directly inducing muscle contraction.
                |–––––– interneuron Most generally any neuron which is not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
                        |––––––––– bipolar neuron A type of interneuron that has two neurites, usually an axon and a dendrite, extending from opposite poles of an ovoid cell body.
                                |–––––––––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                                        |––––––––––––––– cintillo+ sensory neuron A subset of sensory neurons located along the dorsal head margin.
                                        |––––––––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                                        |––––––––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
                |–––––– multipolar neuron Neuron with an axon and two or more dendrites.
                |–––––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                        |––––––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                        |––––––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                        |––––––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                        |––––––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                        |––––––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
                |–––––– peripheral nervous system neuron Any neuron that is part of a peripheral nervous system.
                        |––––––––– autonomic neuron A neruon whose cell body is within an autonomic ganglion.
                                |–––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                |–––––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
                |–––––– sympathetic neuron Sympathetic neurons are part of the sympathetic nervous system and are primarily adrenergic producing the neurotransmitter noradrenalin along with other neuropeptides.
                |–––––– temporary embryonic pharynx neuron A neuronal cell innervating the temporary embryonic pharynx. Four neurons innervate the radial muscle fibers that ring the oral opening.
epithelial cellA cell that is usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface. The cell has a cytoskeleton that allows for tight cell to cell contact and for cell polarity where the apical part is directed towards the lumen and the basal part to the basal lamina.
Expand epithelial cell child relations
        |––– ciliated epithelial cell An epithelial cell that has cilia.
                |–––––– Category 5 cell Post-mitotic, ciliated epidermal cells.
                |–––––– oviduct epithelial cell Ciliated epithelial cells that assemble into the oviduct.
                |–––––– primitive ectoderm cell Primitive ectoderm cells differentiate from the blastomere population, exit the cell cycle and interact to boud the embryo during Stage 2.
                |–––––– proximal tubule epithelial cell Ciliated epithelial cells that assemble into proximal tubules.
                |–––––– sperm duct epithelial cell Ciliated epithelial cells comprising the sperm ducts.
        |––– gland cell Specialized insunk epithelial cells located in the mesenchyme that participate in mucus secretion. They are characterized by elongated cell bodies with long cytoplasmic projections that terminate between, or penetrate directly through epithelial cells and form a secretory pore at the surface.
                |–––––– acidophilic gland cell One of two distinct histochemical classes of gland cells, these can be found throughout the body but primarily form clusters of subepidermal marginal adhesive glands along the dorsalventral border of the animal.
                        |––––––––– anchor cell Specialized epithelial cell located along the dorsoventral margin that surrounds the viscid and releasing gland cells.
                        |––––––––– releasing gland cell Specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion gland which is responsible for production of releasing substance.
                        |––––––––– viscid gland cell A specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion glands which is responsible for production and excretion of the viscid substance allowing adherence to a substrate.
                |–––––– basophilic gland cell One of two distinct histochemical classes of gland cells, these are found near the ventral mesenchyme, the pharynx and in the dorsal region of the head. May also be called cyanophilic gland cells.
        |––– non ciliated epithelial cell An epithelial cell lacking cilia.
                |–––––– Category 4 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally and epidermally located progenitors downstream of the Category 3 cells.
                |–––––– collecting duct epithelial cell Nonciliated epithelial cells that assemble into collecting ducts.
                |–––––– distal tubule epithelial cell Nonciliated epithelial cells that assemble into protonephridial proximal tubules.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx epithelial cell foxA1+ epithelial cell contained in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
extraembryonic cellPost-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells which, give rise to temporary embryonic tissues.
Expand extraembryonic cell child relations
        |––– embryonic gut cell Dispersed, phagocytic gut cells that appear during Stage 4 and ultimately generate a honeycomb-like lattice surrounding the central gut cavity in Stage 5 embryos. Early embryonic gut cell specific transcripts are expressed from Stage 4-6, and are downregulated during Stage 7.
        |––– primitive ectoderm cell Primitive ectoderm cells differentiate from the blastomere population, exit the cell cycle and interact to boud the embryo during Stage 2.
        |––– primitive gut cell Four large phagocytic cells associated with the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx circular muscle fiber Differentiated muscle cell present in a circular muscle fiber of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx epithelial cell foxA1+ epithelial cell contained in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx neuron A neuronal cell innervating the temporary embryonic pharynx. Four neurons innervate the radial muscle fibers that ring the oral opening.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx radial muscle cell Differentiated radial muscle cell present in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
flame cellTerminal structure of the protonephridia unit, capping the proximal tubules. Flame cells are defined by the filtration weir, which consists of closely apposed strands of cytoplasm surrounding a central cilia bundle, and by numerous microvilli between weir and cilia. Positive for acetyated tubulin.
intestinal phagocyteAbsorptive digestive cells that engulf food particles for intracellular digestion.
neuron associated cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia)Cells that are in close proximity to neurons.
Expand neuron associated cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia) child relations
        |––– glial cell A non-neuronal cell of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons.
        |––– pigment cup cell Non-neuronal, pigmented cells arrayed along the proximal side of the optic cup.
ovarian somatic gonadal cellophis+ somatic cells (gh4-, nanos-) in the ovary that may provide trophic support to female germline stem cells and differentiating oogonia.
secretory cellA cell that specializes in controlled release of one or more substances.
Expand secretory cell child relations
        |––– goblet cell Secretory cells that release digestive enzymes into the lumen of the intestine.
        |––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                |–––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                |–––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                |–––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                |–––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                |–––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
sensory cellA cell that performs a sensory function.
Expand sensory cell child relations
        |––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                |–––––– cintillo+ sensory neuron A subset of sensory neurons located along the dorsal head margin.
                |–––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                |–––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
testis somatic gonadal celldmd-1+ expressing somatic cells within the testis that promote male GSC maintenance. dmd-1+, ophis-1+ somatic gonadal cells ensheath germ cells via long cytoplasmic processes and promote differentiation.
yolk cellAn extraembryonic cell, produced by somatic vitellogenic glands in adult hermaphrodites, that provides nutrition to the developing embryo.

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organ

termdefinition
body wall musculatureAny collection of muscles that is part of a body wall [Automatically generated definition].
brainThe brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell.
cephalic gangliaThe planarian brain, consisting of two bilaterally symmetric lobes occupying a ventral position in the head.
definitive epidermisA single cell layer of post-mitotic epithelial cells containing ciliated and non-ciliated cell types forming the exterior surface of the animal.
definitive gutThe planarian triclad gut contains a central anterior gut branch connected to two posterior gut branches arranged around the definitive pharynx. Secondary gut branches extend laterally from the primary gut branches, while tertiary gut branches extend from the secondary branches. Food and waste enter and exit the definitive gut through the defintive pharynx.
definitive pharynx ☆A plicate and protrusible organ that is the sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad gut. It contains epithelial, muscular, secretory and neuronal cell types.
eyeAn organ that detects light.
gonadReproductive organ that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testis).
Expand gonad child relations
        |––– ovary A gonad containing female germline stem cells which fuel oocyte production. Two ovaries are located ventally, underneath the body wall musculature, immediately posterior to the cephalic ganglia (brain) and adjacent to the ventral nerve cords. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuel formation of the ovaries during juvenile development.
        |––– testis A gonad containing male germline stem cells which fuel sperm production. Testes are located dorsolaterally, and are excluded from the head. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuels formation of testes during juvenile development and regeneration.
penis papillaA rounded protuberance, connected to the seminal vesicles, responsible for transferring semen into a mating partner's bursal canal.
protonephridiaExcretory organs consisting of flame cells, proximal tubules, and distal tubules connected to a mesenchymal collecting duct.
ventral nerve cordThe pair of closely united ventral longitudinal nerves with their segmental ganglia that is characteristic of many elongate invertebrates (as earthworms)[BTO]. A large process bundle that runs along the vental mid-line extending from the ventral region of the nerve ring[WB]. The ventral cord is one of the distinguishing traits of the central nervous system of all arthropods (such as insects, crustaceans and arachnids) as well as many other invertebrates, such as the annelid worms[GO].

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definitive tissue

termdefinition
adhesion glandSpecialized epithelial cells located along the dorsoventral margin. Adhesion glands are comprised of three cell types, the viscid and releasing gland cells which penetrate through an epithelial anchor cell and terminate at the epithelial surface.
anterior primary gut branchThe single, central gut branch of the triclad gut anterior to the definitive pharynx.
bursal canalThe passageway connecting the gonopore to the bursa (genital atrium). Part of the copulatory apparatus. During mating, sperm from a partner is deposited into the bursal canal, where it collects in the bursa before travelling up the oviducts to the bursa. Egg capsules pass through the bursal canal as they are laid through the gonopore.
cement glandGlands surrounding the copulatory bursa that are required for production of the proteinaceous egg capsule shell and stalk.
collecting ductNon-ciliated tubules associated with the distal tubules, which cross the basement membrane and terminate in the dorsal epidermis.
copulatory bursaA chamber where egg capsules are formed. One or more zygotes and yolk cells produced by the vitelline glands collect in the copulatory bursa; glands surrounding the copulatory bursa produce the egg capsule shell.\n Nascent egg capsules exit the body by passing through the bursal canal and gonopore. The copulatory bursa is synonymous with the term genital atrium.
distal tubuleSinusoidal, non-ciliated tubules connected to proximal tubules within the parenchyma. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells.
dorsal epidermisSingle cell layer of dorsal, post-mitotic, epithelial cells containing the dorsal stripe.
dorsal stripeCiliated epithelial cells along the dorsal midline.
esophagusAttachment between the triclad gut and the proximal end of the definitive pharynx.
flame bulbTerminal structure of protonephridia unit; consists of flame cells.
ganglionA biological tissue mass of nerve cell bodies.
gastrodermisThe single cell layer columnar epithelial lining of the intestine. The gastrodermis is surrounded by a basal lamina and enteric muscle.
gonoporeThe gonopore, a component of the copulatory apparatus, is an opening located on the ventral side of the animal posterior to the definitive pharynx. The gonopore is the sole point of exit and entry for the reproductive system, allowing from reciprocal exchange of sperm during copulation and egg capsule laying.
inner pharyngeal epitheliumHeavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the inner surface of the pharynx shaft.
lateral branchesNerve branches that extend from the lateral side of each cephalic ganglia lobe. Each lobe has nine lateral branches which terminate in sensory organs. Evidence suggests they play a role in chemosensation.
lateral nerveA nerve extending laterally from the ventral nerve cord that innervates the submuscular plexus.
mouthThe sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad planarian flatworm gut. The mouth is connected to the pharyngeal pouch to allow for exit and re-entry of the definitive pharynx on the ventral side of the animal. The mouth contains several cell types, including epithelial cells, muscle, and secretory cells.
musculature of pharynxThe total musculature within the pharynx.
nerveAn enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system originating in a nerve root in the central nervous system (or a condensed nervous structure) connecting with peripheral structures.
nerve plexusAnatomical junction where subdivisions of two or more neural trees interconnect with one another to form a network through which nerve fibers of the constituent nerve trees become regrouped; together with other nerve plexuses, nerves and ganglia, it constitutes the peripheral nervous system. Examples: cervical nerve plexus, brachial nerve plexus, sacral nerve plexus[FMA].
Expand nerve plexus child relations
        |––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
        |––– ovary nerve plexus Nerve plexus surrounding the ovary.
        |––– subepidermal nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located just between the definitive epidermis and the body wall musculature.
        |––– submuscular nerve plexus Plexus of nerves that innervate the body wall muscles.
        |––– testis nerve plexus Nerve plexus surrounding the testis.
nervous system commissureAxon tract that crosses the midline of the central nervous system[NIF, modified]. In the context of Drosophila refers to a broad band of axons connecting equivalent neuropils each side of the brain[FBbt].
Expand nervous system commissure child relations
        |––– brain commissure any of the nerve fiber tracts that span the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral and/or cerebellar hemispheres of the brain
                |–––––– anterior commissure A bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cephalic ganglia.
neuron projection bundleA fasciculated bundle of neuron projections (GO:0043005), largely or completely lacking synapses.
neuropilA cluster of neurites that is part of a nervous system and forms a network of dendrites and axons where synapses are present and in which neuronal somata do not occur.
optic chiasmaA decussation of the diencephalon where the fibers of the optic nerve cross
optic cupA portion of the eye containing pigment cells and dendritic projections from photoreceptor neurons.
outer pharyngeal epitheliumHeavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the outer surface of the pharynx shaft. These are \"insunk\" epidermal cells in which the nuclei reside behind the layers of longitudinal and circumferential muscles and the epithelial cell body sends out a ciliated projection to the surface to cover and encase the shaft.
oviductCiliated tubes adjacent to the ventral nerve cords, adjoining the tuba and the bursal canal, that transport fertilized oocytes to the genital atrium.
oviduct epitheliumCiliated epithelium lining the oviduct.
parenchymal musculatureDorsal-ventral muscle fibers present through the mesenchyme.
pharyngeal epitheliumEpithelia associated with the pharynx organ.
pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiberPharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
Expand pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber child relations
        |––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
        |––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
pharyngeal pouchAn epithelial structure housing the definitive pharynx, connected to the esophagus and mouth.
pharynx nerve plexusPlexus of nerves located in the definitive pharynx comprised of inner and outer wall rings.
Expand pharynx nerve plexus child relations
        |––– inner pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the lumen.
        |––– outer pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the exterior surface.
posterior primary gut branchThe primary gut branches of the triclad gut lateral and posterior to the pharynx and pharyngeal pouch.
proximal tubuleCiliated epithelial cells form tubules, generating coiled, branching units terminating in flame bulbs. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells. Proximal tubules are connected to non-ciliated distal tubules within the parenchyma.
secondary gut branchGut branches, originating from and connected to the primary gut branches, that extend laterally towards the body edge.
secretory poreThe opening by which the gland cells secrete mucus to the exterior of the animal.
seminal vesicleGlandular pouches adjoining the sperm ducts which produce seminal fluid.
sperm ductA network of tubes that transport sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. Tubes connect each testis to ducts that run along the ventral nerve cords. The ducts bifurcate immediately posterior to the pharynx, where they connect to the seminal vesicles.
sperm duct epitheliumCiliated epithelium lining the sperm duct.
tertiary gut branchGut branches originating from and connected to the secondary gut branches.
transverse commissureAxon tracts from ganglia that cross the midline, connecting the two ventral nerve cords.
tubaA sperm storage organ located immediately posterior to the ovary, at the anterior end of the oviduct. Oocytes exiting the ovary are fertilized in the tuba as they enter the oviduct.
ventral epidermisSingle cell layer of ventral, post-mitotic, heavily ciliated epithelial cells
visceral musculatureMusculature surrounding internal organs of the body.
Expand visceral musculature child relations
        |––– enteric musculature Visceral muscle surrounding the definitive gut.
vitelline glandGlands surrounding the oviducts which produce yolk cells. Yolk cells deposited into the oviducts travel to the genital atrium where they are packaged, along with one or more zygotes, into developing egg capsules.

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developing anatomical structure

termdefinition
embryonic structureAnatomical structure that is part of an embryo.
Expand embryonic structure child relations
        |––– blastomere compartment Undifferentiated, zygote-derived cleavage progeny that give rise to temporary embryonic tissues during Stage 2, continue dividing asynchronously in the embryonic wall, and ultimately give rise to neoblasts and adult lineage progenitors beginning in Stage 5.
extraembryonic structureA multicellular anatomical structure that is associated with an embryo and derived from the zygote from which it develops, but which does not contribute to the embryo proper or to structures that are part of the same organism after embryogenesis.
Expand extraembryonic structure child relations
        |––– embryonic digestive system A cryptic digestive system in Stage 3-6 embryos comprised of temporary embryonic cell types and organs, including the temporary embryonic pharynx and primitive gut cells. Embryonic gut cells, likely produced from blastomeres, form a phagocytic tissue layer surrounding the inner gut cavity during Stages 4-6. It is not known whether the embryonic gut is temporary embryonic tissue or a definitive tissue. For convenience, the embryonic gut is currently designated as an extraembryonic structure because cell type specific markers for the embryonic gut do not stain the definitive gut in hatchlings or adult animals.
        |––– primitive ectoderm A single cell layer of extraembryonic, post-mitotic ectodermal cells bounding the embryo. The primitive ectoderm forms during Stage 2 and is thought to degenerate as the definitive epidermis forms during Stages 5-7.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx An innervated, muscular pump that ingests yolk cells into the gut cavity. The temporary embryonic pharynx is an extraembryonic tissue that forms during Stage 2, functions during Stages 3-5, and degenerates during Stages 6-7.

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regenerating anatomical structure

termdefinition
blastemaA regenerating tissue composed of a proliferative mass of undifferentiated progenitor cells from which new differentiated structures arise
primordiumPrimordia are populations of contiguous cells that are morphologically distinct and already correspond in extent to a later organ/tissue.

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organism subdivision

termdefinition
definitive organism subdivisionAnatomical structure which is a subdivision of a whole adult or juvenile organism, consisting of components of multiple anatomical systems.
Expand definitive organism subdivision child relations
        |––– anatomical compartment A broad, three dimensional body region, defined in relation to the anteroposterior, dorsoventral or mediolateral axis.
                |–––––– anterior compartment Compartment along the anteroposterior axis closer to the head rather than the tail, from the head margin to the esophagus.
                |–––––– body wall musculature compartment An anatomical compartment of the deep-superficial axis containing the body wall musculature and underlying submuscular nerve plexus.
                |–––––– dorsal compartment Three dimensional compartment along the dorsoventral axis that is above the anteroposterior axis, containing the eyes.
                |–––––– epidermal compartment The outermost region of the deep-superficial axis. This anatomical compartment contains definitive epidermis, basal lamina and subepidermal nerve plexus.
                |–––––– gastrovascular compartment The innermost anatomical compartment of the deep-superficial axis, extending from the definitive gut lumen to the gastrodermal nerve plexus.
                |–––––– parenchymal compartment An anatomical compartment of the deep-superficial axis between the gastrodermal nerve plexus and submuscular nerve plexus.
                |–––––– posterior compartment Three dimensional compartment along the anteroposterior axis that is closer to the tail rather than the head, from the anterior boundary of the pharyngeal pouch to the tip of the tail.
                |–––––– ventral compartment Compartment along the dorsoventral axis that is below the anteroposterior axis.
        |––– anatomical compartment subdivision
                |–––––– copulatory region Portion of the sexual biotype body plan immediately posterior to the parapharyngeal region, and immediately anterior to the tail. Encompasses the copulatory apparatus.
                |–––––– dorsoventral margin Region along the edge of the animal where the dorsal and ventral surfaces meet.
                |–––––– head The head is the anterior-most division of the body [GO]. A three dimensional compartment bounded by the anterior margin or the head and the posterior boundary of the cephalic ganglia (brain).
                |–––––– midline The median line/ plane of bilateral symmetry along the anteroposterior axis.
                        |––––––––– dorsal midline The median line/ plane of bilateral symmetry along the anteroposterior axis on the dorsal surface of the animal.
                        |––––––––– ventral midline The median line/ plane of bilateral symmetry along the anteroposterior axis on the ventral surface of the animal.
                |–––––– neck Region of the juvenile or adult animal between the posterior end of the cephalic ganglia and the anterior end of the definitive pharynx.
                |–––––– parapharyngeal region Region of the animal lateral to and surrounding the definitive pharynx.
                |–––––– tail Caudal region, beginning at the mouth and ending at posterior pole.
        |––– anatomical compartment subdivision feature Feature of an organism that is a subdivision of a local region. For example, the anterior pole is a subdivision of the head.
                |–––––– anterior pole Distinct anterior cluster of muscle cells located at the midline which express notum, follistatin, zic-1, and foxD.
                |–––––– posterior pole Distinct posterior cluster of muscle cells located at the midline which express wnt1." [PMID:18063755] {comment="PMID:21680047}
                |–––––– racing stripe Ciliated epidermal cells located along the dorsal midline.
                |–––––– tail stripe Medial region of the tail; the parenchymal space between the posterior primary gut branches.
        |––– anatomical region A 3D region in space without well-defined compartmental boundaries; for example, the dorsal region of an ectoderm.
                |–––––– anatomical margin Fiat anatomical region extending a short distance from the boundary of an object inwards.
                        |––––––––– anterior margin Anatomical margin that is located on the anterior side of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-dorso region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– apical margin Anatomical margin that is located on the apical side of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– basal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the basal side of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– distal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the distal side of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorsal side of body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-dorso region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-dorsal region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the lateral side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the medial side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-medial region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– posterior margin Anatomical margin that is located on the posterior side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-dorsal region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– proximal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the proximal region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventral side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-medial region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– anatomical side An anatomical region bounded by a plane perpendicular to an axis through the middle.
                        |––––––––– anterior side An anatomical region that is the entire part of an anatomical structure anterior to a transverse plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane.
                        |––––––––– apical side Anatomical side that is located on the apical end of an organism or structure.
                        |––––––––– basal side Anatomical side that is located on the basal end of an organism or structure.
                        |––––––––– dorsal side An anatomical region that is the entire part of an anatomical structure dorsal to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane.
                        |––––––––– left side The side of an organism that is left of the sagittal plane.
                        |––––––––– medial side
                        |––––––––– posterior side An anatomical region that is the entire part of an anatomical structure posterior to a transverse plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane.
                        |––––––––– right side The side of an organism that is right of the sagittal plane.
                        |––––––––– ventral side An anatomical region that is the entire part of an anatomical structure ventral to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same horizontal plane.
                |–––––– anterior region Anatomical region anteriorly located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– anterior margin Anatomical margin that is located on the anterior side of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-dorso region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– anterior-most region
                        |––––––––– antero-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the anterior and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– apical region Anatomical region located on the apical end on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– apical margin Anatomical margin that is located on the apical side of the body or body part.
                |–––––– axial region
                |–––––– basal region Anatomical region located basally on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– basal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the basal side of the body or body part.
                |–––––– central region Anatomical region centrally located on the body or body part.
                |–––––– contralateral region
                |–––––– deep region Anatomical region located deep within an organism or structure.
                |–––––– distal region Anatomical region distally located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– distal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the distal side of the body or body part.
                |–––––– dorsal region Anatomical region dorsally located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorsal side of body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-dorso region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-dorsal region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– dorsal-most region
                        |––––––––– dorso-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the dorsal and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– ipsilateral region
                |–––––– lateral region Anatomical region laterally located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– antero-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the anterior and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– dorso-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the dorsal and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the lateral side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– postero-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the posterior and lateral regions of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– ventro-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the ventral and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– medial region Anatomical region medially located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the medial side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– dorso-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the dorso-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-medial region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– peripheral region Anatomical region peripherally located on the body or body part.
                |–––––– posterior region Anatomical region posteriorly located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– posterior margin Anatomical margin that is located on the posterior side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-dorsal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-dorsal region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-medial region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– posterior-most region
                        |––––––––– postero-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the posterior and lateral regions of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-lateral region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– proximal region Anatomical region proximally located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– proximal margin Anatomical margin that is located on the proximal region of the body or body part.
                |–––––– superficial region Anatomical region superficially located on the body or body part.
                |–––––– ventral region Anatomical region ventrally located on the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventral side of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– antero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the antero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– postero-ventral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the postero-ventral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-medial margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-medial region of the body or body part.
                        |––––––––– ventral-most region
                        |––––––––– ventro-lateral region Anatomical region that overlaps the ventral and lateral regions of a body or body part.
                                |–––––––––––– ventro-lateral margin Anatomical margin that is located on the ventro-lateral region of the body or body part.
embryonic subdivisionAnatomical structure which is a subdivision of a whole developing/ embryonic organism, consisting of components of multiple anatomical systems.
Expand embryonic subdivision child relations
        |––– aboral hemisphere Stage 3-5 embryo hemisphere centered around the pole opposite the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– embryonic wall The parenchymal space between the gut cavity and the primitive ectoderm containing undifferentiated blastomeres in Stage 3-5 embryos.
        |––– oral hemisphere Stage 3-5 embryo hemisphere centered around the temporary embryonic pharynx.

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