Molecular Fate Mapping Atlas

Browse webpages dedicated to embryonic tissue types and development of definitive organ systems. Each page contains an overview. In the table below, terms with a star (☆) indicate pages with in-depth written descriptions, associated supplemental figures, in situ hybridization images and sequences for transcripts. These terms are a subset of the Planarian Anatomy Ontology, which is open for browsing and contribution. Visit the ontology source at GitHub.

 

▻ anatomical system

▻ definitive cell type

▻ organ

▻ definitive tissue

▻ developing anatomical structure

▻ regenerating anatomical structure

▻ organism subdivision

 


 

anatomical system

termdefinition
digestive system ☆Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.
Expand digestive system child relations
        |––– digestive system element Any of the organs or elements that are part of the digestive system. Examples: tongue, esophagus, spleen, crop, lunge feeding organ, tooth elements.
                |–––––– definitive gut The planarian triclad gut contains a central anterior gut branch connected to two posterior gut branches arranged around the definitive pharynx. Secondary gut branches extend laterally from the primary gut branches, while tertiary gut branches extend from the secondary branches. Food and waste enter and exit the definitive gut through the defintive pharynx.
                        |––––––––– anterior primary gut branch The single, central gut branch of the triclad gut anterior to the definitive pharynx.
                        |––––––––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
                                |–––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                        |––––––––– gastrodermis The single cell layer columnar epithelial lining of the intestine. The gastrodermis is surrounded by a basal lamina and enteric muscle.
                                |–––––––––––– goblet cell Secretory cells that release digestive enzymes into the lumen of the intestine.
                                |–––––––––––– intestinal phagocyte Absorptive digestive cells that engulf food particles for intracellular digestion.
                        |––––––––– posterior primary gut branch The primary gut branches of the triclad gut lateral and posterior to the pharynx and pharyngeal pouch.
                        |––––––––– secondary gut branch Gut branches, originating from and connected to the primary gut branches, that extend laterally towards the body edge.
                        |––––––––– tertiary gut branch Gut branches originating from and connected to the secondary gut branches.
                |–––––– definitive pharynx A plicate and protrusible organ that is the sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad gut. It contains epithelial, muscular, secretory and neuronal cell types.
                        |––––––––– cavity of pharynx A anatomical space that is enclosed by a pharynx.
                        |––––––––– esophagus Attachment between the triclad gut and the proximal end of the definitive pharynx.
                        |––––––––– musculature of pharynx The total musculature within the pharynx.
                                |–––––––––––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                                        |––––––––––––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                                        |––––––––––––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
                                |–––––––––––– pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
                                        |––––––––––––––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
                                        |––––––––––––––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
                                |–––––––––––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
                        |––––––––– pharyngeal epithelium Epithelia associated with the pharynx organ.
                                |–––––––––––– inner pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the inner surface of the pharynx shaft.
                                |–––––––––––– outer pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the outer surface of the pharynx shaft. These are \"insunk\" epidermal cells in which the nuclei reside behind the layers of longitudinal and circumferential muscles and the epithelial cell body sends out a ciliated projection to the surface to cover and encase the shaft.
                        |––––––––– pharynx nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located in the definitive pharynx comprised of inner and outer wall rings.
                                |–––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– inner pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the lumen.
                                |–––––––––––– outer pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the exterior surface.
                |–––––– definitive pharynx progenitor cell foxA1+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters required for maintenance and regeneration of the definitive pharynx.
                |–––––– enteric muscle Visceral muscle surrounding the definitive gut.
                |–––––– gamma neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass, exhibiting enriched expression of gata456a, hnf4, prox-1 and nkx2.2, implicated in maintenance and regeneration of the definitive gut.
                |–––––– lumen of digestive tract An anatomical space that is surrounded by a digestive tract.
                |–––––– mouth The sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad planarian flatworm gut. The mouth is connected to the pharyngeal pouch to allow for exit and re-entry of the definitive pharynx on the ventral side of the animal. The mouth contains several cell types, including epithelial cells, muscle, and secretory cells.
                |–––––– pharyngeal pouch An epithelial structure housing the definitive pharynx, connected to the esophagus and mouth.
integumental system ☆Connected anatomical system that forms a barrier between an animal and its environment. In vertebrates, the integumental system consists of the epidermis, dermis plus associated glands and adnexa such as hair and scales. In invertebrates, the integumental system may include cuticle.
Expand integumental system child relations
        |––– basal lamina of epithelium Acellular anatomical structure that consists of a thin sheet of fibrous proteins that underlie and support the cells of an epithelium. It separates the cells of an epithelium from any underlying tissue.
        |––– definitive epidermis A single cell layer of post-mitotic epithelial cells containing ciliated and non-ciliated cell types forming the exterior surface of the animal.
                |–––––– Category 5 cell Post-mitotic, ciliated epidermal cells.
                |–––––– dorsal epidermis Single cell layer of dorsal, post-mitotic, epithelial cells containing the dorsal stripe.
                        |––––––––– apical epidermis surface The apical surface of the single layered epithelium epidermis that is in contact with the environment.
                        |––––––––– basal epidermis surface The basal surface of the epidermial epithelium in contact with the basal lamina.
                        |––––––––– dorsal stripe Ciliated epithelial cells along the dorsal midline.
                |–––––– epidermal progenitor Mitotically active zeta neoblasts and their post-mitotic descendants which undergo progressive differentiation and outward directed movement through the mesenchyme prior to incorporation into the epidermis, where terminal differentiation occurs.
                        |––––––––– Category 2 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the zeta neoblasts.
                        |––––––––– Category 3 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the Category 2 cells.
                        |––––––––– Category 4 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally and epidermally located progenitors downstream of the Category 3 cells.
                        |––––––––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
                |–––––– ventral epidermis Single cell layer of ventral, post-mitotic, heavily ciliated epithelial cells
                        |––––––––– apical epidermis surface The apical surface of the single layered epithelium epidermis that is in contact with the environment.
                        |––––––––– basal epidermis surface The basal surface of the epidermial epithelium in contact with the basal lamina.
musculature system ☆Total musculature of the planarian body.
Expand musculature system child relations
        |––– enteric muscle Visceral muscle surrounding the definitive gut.
        |––– muscle progenitor myoD+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters implicated in the maintenance and regeneration of muscles.
        |––– musculature of body wall Any collection of muscles that is part of a body wall [Automatically generated definition].
                |–––––– circular muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed around the dorsoventral axis. Upon regeneration, these are thought to be produced de novo in the blastema.
                |–––––– diagonal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed diagonally along the anteroposterior axis.
                |–––––– longitudinal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. Upon regeneration, these muscles are thought to be established from truncated pre-existing fibers.
                        |––––––––– inner longitudinal muscle fiber Inner most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thicker than the outer longitudinal muscle fibers. The pattern of these muscles differs along the dorsoventral axis, with the dorsal arrangement converging at the central zone of the anterior pole. The ventral arrangement is more parallel or may diverge slightly as it approaches the ventral pole.
                        |––––––––– outer longitudinal muscle fiber Outer most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thinner than the inner longitudinal muscle fibers.
        |––– musculature of pharynx The total musculature within the pharynx.
                |–––––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                        |––––––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                        |––––––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
                |–––––– pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
                        |––––––––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
                        |––––––––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
                |–––––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
        |––– parenchymal musculature Dorsal-ventral muscle fibers present through the mesenchyme.
neoblast compartment ☆A heterogeneous population of pluripotent, somatic adult stem cells and lineage primed progenitors that are required for maintenance and regeneration of all cell types in planaria, including the germline.
Expand neoblast compartment child relations
        |––– clonogenic neoblast Pluripotent piwi-1+ stem cells that self-renew, form expanding colonies and produce differentiating daughters that contribute to multiple organ systems. cNeoblasts are predicted to be broadly distributed across the anteroposterior axis of the adult worm.
        |––– definitive pharynx progenitor cell foxA1+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters required for maintenance and regeneration of the definitive pharynx.
        |––– gamma neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass, exhibiting enriched expression of gata456a, hnf4, prox-1 and nkx2.2, implicated in maintenance and regeneration of the definitive gut.
        |––– muscle progenitor myoD+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters implicated in the maintenance and regeneration of muscles.
        |––– neural progenitor Neoblasts and their differentiating daughters implicated in maintenance and regeneration of different tissues in the nervous system.
        |––– primordial germ cell Neoblasts coexpressing piwi-1 and nanos that are required for male and female gonad formation. Primordial germ cells are present in both asexual and sexual adults.
        |––– protonephridial progenitor Neoblasts and post-mitotic, differentiating daughters coexpressing POU2-3, six1/2-2, Sal1, Eya and Osr, required for maintenance and regeneration of protonephridial cell types.
        |––– sigma neoblast A heterogeneous subpopulation of neoblasts with enriched expression of SoxP-1 and SoxP-2 thought to contain both pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific progenitors.
        |––– trail cell Ovo+ neoblasts and post-mitotic eye progenitors that simultaneously migrate and differentiate into photoreceptor neurons and non-neuronal pigment cup cells comprising the optic cup.
        |––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
nervous system ☆The nervous system is an organ system containing predominantly neuron and glial cells. In bilaterally symmetrical organisms, it is arranged in a network of tree-like structures connected to a central body. The main functions of the nervous system are to regulate and control body functions, and to receive sensory input, process this information, and generate behavior [CUMBO].
Expand nervous system child relations
        |––– electrically responsive cell A cell whose function is determined by its response to an electric signal.
                |–––––– muscle cell A mature contractile cell, commonly known as a myocyte. This cell has as part of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.
                |–––––– neural cell A cell that is part of the nervous system.
                        |––––––––– neuron The basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– afferent neuron A neuron which conveys sensory information centrally from the periphery.
                                        |––––––––––––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
                                |–––––––––––– commissural neuron A neuron that has an axon which crosses the midline.
                                |–––––––––––– efferent neuron A neuron which sends impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
                                        |––––––––––––––– motor neuron An efferent neuron that passes from the central nervous system or a ganglion toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes or inhibits movement.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– excitatory motor neuron A motor neuron that is capable of directly inducing muscle contraction.
                                |–––––––––––– interneuron Most generally any neuron which is not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
                                        |––––––––––––––– bipolar neuron A type of interneuron that has two neurites, usually an axon and a dendrite, extending from opposite poles of an ovoid cell body.
                                |–––––––––––– multipolar neuron Neuron with an axon and two or more dendrites.
                                |–––––––––––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                                        |––––––––––––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                                        |––––––––––––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                                        |––––––––––––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                                        |––––––––––––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                                        |––––––––––––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
                                |–––––––––––– peripheral neuron A neuron that is part of nerve found outside the central nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
                                |–––––––––––– sympathetic neuron Sympathetic neurons are part of the sympathetic nervous system and are primarily adrenergic producing the neurotransmitter noradrenalin along with other neuropeptides.
        |––– electrically signaling cell A cell that initiates an electrical signal and passes that signal to another cell.
                |–––––– neural cell A cell that is part of the nervous system.
                        |––––––––– neuron The basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– afferent neuron A neuron which conveys sensory information centrally from the periphery.
                                        |––––––––––––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
                                |–––––––––––– commissural neuron A neuron that has an axon which crosses the midline.
                                |–––––––––––– efferent neuron A neuron which sends impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
                                        |––––––––––––––– motor neuron An efferent neuron that passes from the central nervous system or a ganglion toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes or inhibits movement.
                                                |–––––––––––––––––– excitatory motor neuron A motor neuron that is capable of directly inducing muscle contraction.
                                |–––––––––––– interneuron Most generally any neuron which is not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
                                        |––––––––––––––– bipolar neuron A type of interneuron that has two neurites, usually an axon and a dendrite, extending from opposite poles of an ovoid cell body.
                                |–––––––––––– multipolar neuron Neuron with an axon and two or more dendrites.
                                |–––––––––––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                                        |––––––––––––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                                        |––––––––––––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                                        |––––––––––––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                                        |––––––––––––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                                        |––––––––––––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
                                |–––––––––––– peripheral neuron A neuron that is part of nerve found outside the central nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
                                |–––––––––––– sympathetic neuron Sympathetic neurons are part of the sympathetic nervous system and are primarily adrenergic producing the neurotransmitter noradrenalin along with other neuropeptides.
        |––– ganglion A biological tissue mass of nerve cell bodies.
        |––– nerve An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system originating in a nerve root in the central nervous system (or a condensed nervous structure) connecting with peripheral structures.
        |––– nerve plexus Anatomical junction where subdivisions of two or more neural trees interconnect with one another to form a network through which nerve fibers of the constituent nerve trees become regrouped; together with other nerve plexuses, nerves and ganglia, it constitutes the peripheral nervous system. Examples: cervical nerve plexus, brachial nerve plexus, sacral nerve plexus[FMA].
                |–––––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
                        |––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                |–––––– subepidermal nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located just between the definitive epidermis and the body wall musculature.
                |–––––– submuscular nerve plexus Plexus of nerves that innervate the body wall muscles.
        |––– neural progenitor Neoblasts and their differentiating daughters implicated in maintenance and regeneration of different tissues in the nervous system.
        |––– neuron associated cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia) Cells that are in close proximity to neurons.
                |–––––– glial cell A non-neuronal cell of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons.
        |––– neuron projection bundle A fasciculated bundle of neuron projections (GO:0043005), largely or completely lacking synapses.
        |––– regional part of nervous system Any part or collection of parts of the central or peripheral nervous system. Parts may span both CNS and PNS.
                |–––––– central nervous system The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the neural tube derivatives: the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates it includes central ganglia plus nerve cord.
                        |––––––––– central nervous system neuron Any neuron that is part of a central nervous system.
                        |––––––––– cephalic ganglia The planarian brain, consisting of two bilaterally symmetric lobes occupying a ventral position in the head.
                        |––––––––– lateral branches Nerve branches that extend from the lateral side of each cephalic ganglia lobe. Each lobe has nine lateral branches which terminate in sensory organs. Evidence suggests they play a role in chemosensation.
                        |––––––––– nervous system commissure Axon tract that crosses the midline of the central nervous system[NIF, modified]. In the context of Drosophila refers to a broad band of axons connecting equivalent neuropils each side of the brain[FBbt].
                                |–––––––––––– brain commissure any of the nerve fiber tracts that span the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral and/or cerebellar hemispheres of the brain
                                        |––––––––––––––– anterior commissure A bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cephalic ganglia.
                                |–––––––––––– optic chiasma A decussation of the diencephalon where the fibers of the optic nerve cross
                        |––––––––– neuropil A cluster of neurites that is part of a nervous system and forms a network of dendrites and axons where synapses are present and in which neuronal somata do not occur.
                        |––––––––– ventral nerve cord The pair of closely united ventral longitudinal nerves with their segmental ganglia that is characteristic of many elongate invertebrates (as earthworms)[BTO]. A large process bundle that runs along the vental mid-line extending from the ventral region of the nerve ring[WB]. The ventral cord is one of the distinguishing traits of the central nervous system of all arthropods (such as insects, crustaceans and arachnids) as well as many other invertebrates, such as the annelid worms[GO].
                |–––––– peripheral nervous system A major division of the nervous system that contains nerves which connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands.
                        |––––––––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
                                |–––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                        |––––––––– peripheral nervous system neuron Any neuron that is part of a peripheral nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– autonomic neuron A neruon whose cell body is within an autonomic ganglion.
                                        |––––––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                        |––––––––– pharynx nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located in the definitive pharynx comprised of inner and outer wall rings.
                                |–––––––––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– inner pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the lumen.
                                |–––––––––––– outer pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the exterior surface.
                        |––––––––– subepidermal nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located just between the definitive epidermis and the body wall musculature.
                        |––––––––– submuscular nerve plexus Plexus of nerves that innervate the body wall muscles.
renal system ☆The renal system is an anatomical system that maintains fluid balance and contributes to electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and disposal of nitrogenous waste products.
Expand renal system child relations
        |––– collecting duct Non-ciliated tubules associated with the distal tubules, which cross the basement membrane and terminate in the dorsal epidermis.
        |––– protonephridia Excretory organs consisting of flame cells, proximal tubules, and distal tubules connected to a mesenchymal collecting duct.
                |–––––– distal tubule Sinusoidal, non-ciliated tubules connected to proximal tubules within the parenchyma. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells.
                |–––––– flame bulb Terminal structure of protonephridia unit; consists of flame cells.
                        |––––––––– flame cell Terminal structure of the protonephridia unit, capping the proximal tubules. Flame cells are defined by the filtration weir, which consists of closely apposed strands of cytoplasm surrounding a central cilia bundle, and by numerous microvilli between weir and cilia. Positive for acetyated tubulin.
                |–––––– proximal tubule Ciliated epithelial cells form tubules, generating coiled, branching units terminating in flame bulbs. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells. Proximal tubules are connected to non-ciliated distal tubules within the parenchyma.
        |––– protonephridial progenitor Neoblasts and post-mitotic, differentiating daughters coexpressing POU2-3, six1/2-2, Sal1, Eya and Osr, required for maintenance and regeneration of protonephridial cell types.
reproductive systemAnatomical system that has as its parts the organs concerned with reproduction.
Expand reproductive system child relations
        |––– gonad Reproductive organ that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testis).
                |–––––– ovary A gonad containing female germline stem cells which fuel oocyte production. Two ovaries are located ventally, underneath the body wall musculature, immediately posterior to the cephalic ganglia (brain) and adjacent to the ventral nerve cords. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuel formation of the ovaries during juvenile development.
                        |––––––––– female germline stem cell A piwi-1+, nanos+ cell residing in the ovary that self-renews and give rise to oogonial cells that differentiate into oocytes.
                        |––––––––– oocyte A female germ cell that has entered meiosis.
                        |––––––––– oogonial cell An undifferentiated germ cell that proliferates rapidly and gives rise to oocytes.
                        |––––––––– ovarian somatic gonadal cell ophis+ somatic cells (gh4-, nanos-) in the ovary that may provide trophic support to female germline stem cells and differentiating oogonia.
                |–––––– testis A gonad containing male germline stem cells which fuel sperm production. Testes are located dorsolaterally, and are excluded from the head. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuels formation of testes during juvenile development and regeneration.
                        |––––––––– male germline stem cell gh4+, nanos+ cells residing at the testis periphery that self-renew and give rise to differentiating daughters that will ultimately produce haploid sperm.
                        |––––––––– sperm A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid.
                        |––––––––– spermatid A male germ cell that develops from the haploid secondary spermatocytes. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to spermatozoa.
                                |–––––––––––– elongate spermatid Spermatids expressing protein kinase A undergoing morphogenic changes to make mature sperm.
                                |–––––––––––– round spermatid A cyst of 8 interconnected spermatocytes undergoes meiosis, producing 32 haploid round spermatids. Round spermatids express protein kinase A, and undergo morphogenesis to produce mature sperm.
                        |––––––––– spermatocyte A tektin-1+ male germ cell that develops from spermatogonia. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to spermatids.
                        |––––––––– spermatogonium An euploid male germ cell of an early stage of spermatogenesis. In planaria, the gh4+ stem cell daughter exiting the niche undergoes three rounds of transit amplifying division with incomplete cytokinesis prior to transitioning to terminal differentiation.
                        |––––––––– testis somatic gonadal cell dmd-1+ expressing somatic cells within the testis that promote male GSC maintenance. dmd-1+, ophis-1+ somatic gonadal cells ensheath germ cells via long cytoplasmic processes and promote differentiation.
        |––– primordial germ cell Neoblasts coexpressing piwi-1 and nanos that are required for male and female gonad formation. Primordial germ cells are present in both asexual and sexual adults.
        |––– reproductive system product Products of the reproductive system include gametes, zygotes, yolk cells and egg capsules.
                |–––––– egg capsule A proteinaceous, semi-permeable shell housing yolk cells and one or more embryos. Egg capsules are anchored to a substrate via a stalk.
                |–––––– embryo Anatomical entity that comprises the organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
                |–––––– gamete A mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
                        |––––––––– oocyte A female germ cell that has entered meiosis.
                        |––––––––– sperm A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid.
                |–––––– yolk cell An extraembryonic cell, produced by somatic vitellogenic glands in adult hermaphrodites, that provides nutrition to the developing embryo.
        |––– somatic reproductive system element Somatic male and female accessory organs and structures of the hermaphroditic reproductive system. Somatic reproductive elements are only made in the Smed sexual biotype and form during juvenile development.
                |–––––– copulatory apparatus Accessory reproductive structures involved in copulation, egg capsule development and laying.
                        |––––––––– bursal canal The passageway connecting the gonopore to the bursa (genital atrium). Part of the copulatory apparatus. During mating, sperm from a partner is deposited into the bursal canal, where it collects in the bursa before travelling up the oviducts to the bursa. Egg capsules pass through the bursal canal as they are laid through the gonopore.
                        |––––––––– cement gland Glands surrounding the copulatory bursa that are required for production of the proteinaceous egg capsule shell and stalk.
                        |––––––––– copulatory bursa A chamber where egg capsules are formed. One or more zygotes and yolk cells produced by the vitelline glands collect in the copulatory bursa; glands surrounding the copulatory bursa produce the egg capsule shell.\n Nascent egg capsules exit the body by passing through the bursal canal and gonopore. The copulatory bursa is synonymous with the term genital atrium.
                        |––––––––– gonopore The gonopore, a component of the copulatory apparatus, is an opening located on the ventral side of the animal posterior to the definitive pharynx. The gonopore is the sole point of exit and entry for the reproductive system, allowing from reciprocal exchange of sperm during copulation and egg capsule laying.
                        |––––––––– penis papilla A rounded protuberance, connected to the seminal vesicles, responsible for transferring semen into a mating partner's bursal canal.
                        |––––––––– seminal vesicle Glandular pouches adjoining the sperm ducts which produce seminal fluid.
                |–––––– oviduct Ciliated tubes adjacent to the ventral nerve cords, adjoining the tuba and the bursal canal, that transport fertilized oocytes to the genital atrium.
                        |––––––––– oviduct epithelium Ciliated epithelium lining the oviduct.
                        |––––––––– oviduct lumen Anatomical space enclosed by the oviduct epithelium.
                |–––––– sperm duct A network of tubes that transport sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. Tubes connect each testis to ducts that run along the ventral nerve cords. The ducts bifurcate immediately posterior to the pharynx, where they connect to the seminal vesicles.
                        |––––––––– sperm duct epithelium Ciliated epithelium lining the sperm duct.
                        |––––––––– sperm duct lumen Anatomical space enclosed by the sperm duct epithelium.
                |–––––– tuba A sperm storage organ located immediately posterior to the ovary, at the anterior end of the oviduct. Oocytes exiting the ovary are fertilized in the tuba as they enter the oviduct.
                        |––––––––– tuba lumen Anatomical space enclosed by tuba. Oocyte(s) are fertilized in the tuba lumen by sperm that traveled up the oviduct.
                |–––––– vitelline gland Glands surrounding the oviducts which produce yolk cells. Yolk cells deposited into the oviducts travel to the genital atrium where they are packaged, along with one or more zygotes, into developing egg capsules.
secretory systemAnatomical system that has as its parts cells and glands devoted to the discharge of substances such as mucus.
Expand secretory system child relations
        |––– gland cell Specialized insunk epithelial cells located in the mesenchyme that participate in mucus secretion. They are characterized by elongated cell bodies with long cytoplasmic projections that terminate between, or penetrate directly through epithelial cells and form a secretory pore at the surface.
                |–––––– acidophilic gland cell One of two distinct histochemical classes of gland cells, these can be found throughout the body but primarily form clusters of subepidermal marginal adhesive glands along the dorsal/ ventral border of the animal. May also be referred to as eosinophilic gland cells.
                |–––––– basophilic gland cell One of two distinct histochemical classes of gland cells, these are found near the ventral mesenchyme, the pharynx and in the dorsal region of the head. May also be called cyanophilic gland cells.
        |––– secretory pore The opening by which the gland cells secrete mucus to the exterior of the animal.
sensory systemAnatomical system that overlaps the nervous system and is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information.
Expand sensory system child relations
        |––– sensory cell A cell that performs a sensory function.
                |–––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                        |––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                        |––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
visual system ☆The sensory system subserving the sense of vision.
Expand visual system child relations
        |––– eye An organ that detects light.
                |–––––– optic cup A portion of the eye containing pigment cells and dendritic projections from photoreceptor neurons.
                        |––––––––– pigment cup cell Non-neuronal, pigmented cells arrayed along the proximal side of the optic cup.
                |–––––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
        |––– optic chiasma A decussation of the diencephalon where the fibers of the optic nerve cross
        |––– trail cell Ovo+ neoblasts and post-mitotic eye progenitors that simultaneously migrate and differentiate into photoreceptor neurons and non-neuronal pigment cup cells comprising the optic cup.

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definitive cell type

termdefinition
germ cell1. A gamete (as an egg or sperm cell) or one of its antecedent cells. 2. A mature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of the opposite sex.
Expand germ cell child relations
        |––– female germ cell Female germ cell is a germ cell that supports female gamete production.
                |–––––– female germline stem cell A piwi-1+, nanos+ cell residing in the ovary that self-renews and give rise to oogonial cells that differentiate into oocytes.
                |–––––– oocyte A female germ cell that has entered meiosis.
                |–––––– oogonial cell An undifferentiated germ cell that proliferates rapidly and gives rise to oocytes.
        |––– gamete A mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
                |–––––– oocyte A female germ cell that has entered meiosis.
                |–––––– sperm A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid.
        |––– male germ cell A male germ cell is a germ cell that supports male gamete production.
                |–––––– male germline stem cell gh4+, nanos+ cells residing at the testis periphery that self-renew and give rise to differentiating daughters that will ultimately produce haploid sperm.
                |–––––– sperm A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid.
                |–––––– spermatid A male germ cell that develops from the haploid secondary spermatocytes. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to spermatozoa.
                        |––––––––– elongate spermatid Spermatids expressing protein kinase A undergoing morphogenic changes to make mature sperm.
                        |––––––––– round spermatid A cyst of 8 interconnected spermatocytes undergoes meiosis, producing 32 haploid round spermatids. Round spermatids express protein kinase A, and undergo morphogenesis to produce mature sperm.
                |–––––– spermatocyte A tektin-1+ male germ cell that develops from spermatogonia. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to spermatids.
                |–––––– spermatogonium An euploid male germ cell of an early stage of spermatogenesis. In planaria, the gh4+ stem cell daughter exiting the niche undergoes three rounds of transit amplifying division with incomplete cytokinesis prior to transitioning to terminal differentiation.
        |––– primordial germ cell Neoblasts coexpressing piwi-1 and nanos that are required for male and female gonad formation. Primordial germ cells are present in both asexual and sexual adults.
ovarian somatic gonadal cellophis+ somatic cells (gh4-, nanos-) in the ovary that may provide trophic support to female germline stem cells and differentiating oogonia.
precursor cellA cell that, by division or terminal differentiation, can give rise to other cell types.
Expand precursor cell child relations
        |––– progenitor cell A cycling neoblast and/or post-mitotic cell that is primed or irreversibly committed to a tissue-specific differentation program
                |–––––– definitive pharynx progenitor cell foxA1+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters required for maintenance and regeneration of the definitive pharynx.
                |–––––– epidermal progenitor Mitotically active zeta neoblasts and their post-mitotic descendants which undergo progressive differentiation and outward directed movement through the mesenchyme prior to incorporation into the epidermis, where terminal differentiation occurs.
                        |––––––––– Category 2 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the zeta neoblasts.
                        |––––––––– Category 3 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the Category 2 cells.
                        |––––––––– Category 4 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally and epidermally located progenitors downstream of the Category 3 cells.
                        |––––––––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
                |–––––– gamma neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass, exhibiting enriched expression of gata456a, hnf4, prox-1 and nkx2.2, implicated in maintenance and regeneration of the definitive gut.
                |–––––– muscle progenitor myoD+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters implicated in the maintenance and regeneration of muscles.
                |–––––– neural progenitor Neoblasts and their differentiating daughters implicated in maintenance and regeneration of different tissues in the nervous system.
                |–––––– oogonial cell An undifferentiated germ cell that proliferates rapidly and gives rise to oocytes.
                |–––––– protonephridial progenitor Neoblasts and post-mitotic, differentiating daughters coexpressing POU2-3, six1/2-2, Sal1, Eya and Osr, required for maintenance and regeneration of protonephridial cell types.
                |–––––– sigma neoblast A heterogeneous subpopulation of neoblasts with enriched expression of SoxP-1 and SoxP-2 thought to contain both pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific progenitors.
                |–––––– spermatogonium An euploid male germ cell of an early stage of spermatogenesis. In planaria, the gh4+ stem cell daughter exiting the niche undergoes three rounds of transit amplifying division with incomplete cytokinesis prior to transitioning to terminal differentiation.
                |–––––– trail cell Ovo+ neoblasts and post-mitotic eye progenitors that simultaneously migrate and differentiate into photoreceptor neurons and non-neuronal pigment cup cells comprising the optic cup.
stem cellA relatively undifferentiated cell that retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Expand stem cell child relations
        |––– clonogenic neoblast Pluripotent piwi-1+ stem cells that self-renew, form expanding colonies and produce differentiating daughters that contribute to multiple organ systems. cNeoblasts are predicted to be broadly distributed across the anteroposterior axis of the adult worm.
        |––– definitive pharynx progenitor cell foxA1+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters required for maintenance and regeneration of the definitive pharynx.
        |––– female germline stem cell A piwi-1+, nanos+ cell residing in the ovary that self-renews and give rise to oogonial cells that differentiate into oocytes.
        |––– gamma neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass, exhibiting enriched expression of gata456a, hnf4, prox-1 and nkx2.2, implicated in maintenance and regeneration of the definitive gut.
        |––– male germline stem cell gh4+, nanos+ cells residing at the testis periphery that self-renew and give rise to differentiating daughters that will ultimately produce haploid sperm.
        |––– muscle progenitor myoD+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters implicated in the maintenance and regeneration of muscles.
        |––– neural progenitor Neoblasts and their differentiating daughters implicated in maintenance and regeneration of different tissues in the nervous system.
        |––– primordial germ cell Neoblasts coexpressing piwi-1 and nanos that are required for male and female gonad formation. Primordial germ cells are present in both asexual and sexual adults.
        |––– protonephridial progenitor Neoblasts and post-mitotic, differentiating daughters coexpressing POU2-3, six1/2-2, Sal1, Eya and Osr, required for maintenance and regeneration of protonephridial cell types.
        |––– sigma neoblast A heterogeneous subpopulation of neoblasts with enriched expression of SoxP-1 and SoxP-2 thought to contain both pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific progenitors.
        |––– trail cell Ovo+ neoblasts and post-mitotic eye progenitors that simultaneously migrate and differentiate into photoreceptor neurons and non-neuronal pigment cup cells comprising the optic cup.
        |––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
terminally differentiated cellA post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cell type found in planarian embryos, juveniles and/or adult animals.
Expand terminally differentiated cell child relations
        |––– anchor cell Specialized epithelial cell located along the dorsoventral margin that surrounds the viscid and releasing gland cells.
        |––– circular muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed around the dorsoventral axis. Upon regeneration, these are thought to be produced de novo in the blastema.
        |––– diagonal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed diagonally along the anteroposterior axis.
        |––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
        |––– epithelial cell A cell that is usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface. The cell has a cytoskeleton that allows for tight cell to cell contact and for cell polarity where the apical part is directed towards the lumen and the basal part to the basal lamina.
                |–––––– Category 4 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally and epidermally located progenitors downstream of the Category 3 cells.
                |–––––– ciliated epithelial cell An epithelial cell that has a cillia.
                        |––––––––– Category 5 cell Post-mitotic, ciliated epidermal cells.
                |–––––– epithelial cell component A part of an epithelial cell.
                        |––––––––– rhabdite Straight or curved rod-like structures within the epidermal cells, oriented with long axis at right angles to the epidermal surface, that are discharged into mucous secretions.
        |––– flame cell Terminal structure of the protonephridia unit, capping the proximal tubules. Flame cells are defined by the filtration weir, which consists of closely apposed strands of cytoplasm surrounding a central cilia bundle, and by numerous microvilli between weir and cilia. Positive for acetyated tubulin.
        |––– glial cell A non-neuronal cell of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons.
        |––– goblet cell Secretory cells that release digestive enzymes into the lumen of the intestine.
        |––– intestinal phagocyte Absorptive digestive cells that engulf food particles for intracellular digestion.
        |––– longitudinal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. Upon regeneration, these muscles are thought to be established from truncated pre-existing fibers.
                |–––––– inner longitudinal muscle fiber Inner most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thicker than the outer longitudinal muscle fibers. The pattern of these muscles differs along the dorsoventral axis, with the dorsal arrangement converging at the central zone of the anterior pole. The ventral arrangement is more parallel or may diverge slightly as it approaches the ventral pole.
                |–––––– outer longitudinal muscle fiber Outer most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thinner than the inner longitudinal muscle fibers.
        |––– muscle cell A mature contractile cell, commonly known as a myocyte. This cell has as part of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.
        |––– neuron The basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
                |–––––– afferent neuron A neuron which conveys sensory information centrally from the periphery.
                        |––––––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                                |–––––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                                |–––––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
                |–––––– commissural neuron A neuron that has an axon which crosses the midline.
                |–––––– efferent neuron A neuron which sends impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
                        |––––––––– motor neuron An efferent neuron that passes from the central nervous system or a ganglion toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes or inhibits movement.
                                |–––––––––––– excitatory motor neuron A motor neuron that is capable of directly inducing muscle contraction.
                |–––––– interneuron Most generally any neuron which is not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
                        |––––––––– bipolar neuron A type of interneuron that has two neurites, usually an axon and a dendrite, extending from opposite poles of an ovoid cell body.
                |–––––– multipolar neuron Neuron with an axon and two or more dendrites.
                |–––––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                        |––––––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                        |––––––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                        |––––––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                        |––––––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                        |––––––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
                |–––––– peripheral neuron A neuron that is part of nerve found outside the central nervous system.
                |–––––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
                |–––––– sympathetic neuron Sympathetic neurons are part of the sympathetic nervous system and are primarily adrenergic producing the neurotransmitter noradrenalin along with other neuropeptides.
        |––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                |–––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                |–––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
        |––– pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
                |–––––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
                |–––––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
        |––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
        |––– pigment cup cell Non-neuronal, pigmented cells arrayed along the proximal side of the optic cup.
        |––– releasing gland cell Specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion gland which is responsible for production of releasing substance.
        |––– secretory cell A cell that specializes in controlled release of one or more substances.
                |–––––– neurosecretory neuron Neuronal cells which synthesize, store and release neurohormones.
                        |––––––––– cholinergic neuron Neurons that express choline acetyltransferase.
                        |––––––––– dopaminergic neuron A neuron that expresses the neurotransmitter dopamine.
                        |––––––––– GABAergic neuron Neurons that express glutamine decarboxylase.
                        |––––––––– octopaminergic neuron Neurons that express the biogenic amine octopamine.
                        |––––––––– serotonergic neuron Neurons that express the neurotransmitter serotonin." [] {comment="PMID:17624455}
        |––– sensory cell A cell that performs a sensory function.
                |–––––– sensory neuron Any neuron having a sensory function; an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses.
                        |––––––––– mechanoreceptor cell A cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
                        |––––––––– unipolar neuron Neuron with one neurite that extends from the cell body.
        |––– viscid gland cell A specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion glands which is responsible for production and excretion of the viscid substance allowing adherence to a substrate.
        |––– yolk cell An extraembryonic cell, produced by somatic vitellogenic glands in adult hermaphrodites, that provides nutrition to the developing embryo.
testis somatic gonadal celldmd-1+ expressing somatic cells within the testis that promote male GSC maintenance. dmd-1+, ophis-1+ somatic gonadal cells ensheath germ cells via long cytoplasmic processes and promote differentiation.

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organ

termdefinition
brainThe brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell.
definitive epidermis ☆A single cell layer of post-mitotic epithelial cells containing ciliated and non-ciliated cell types forming the exterior surface of the animal.
Expand definitive epidermis child relations
        |––– Category 5 cell Post-mitotic, ciliated epidermal cells.
        |––– dorsal epidermis Single cell layer of dorsal, post-mitotic, epithelial cells containing the dorsal stripe.
                |–––––– apical epidermis surface The apical surface of the single layered epithelium epidermis that is in contact with the environment.
                |–––––– basal epidermis surface The basal surface of the epidermial epithelium in contact with the basal lamina.
                |–––––– dorsal stripe Ciliated epithelial cells along the dorsal midline.
        |––– epidermal progenitor Mitotically active zeta neoblasts and their post-mitotic descendants which undergo progressive differentiation and outward directed movement through the mesenchyme prior to incorporation into the epidermis, where terminal differentiation occurs.
                |–––––– Category 2 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the zeta neoblasts.
                |–––––– Category 3 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally located epidermal progenitors downstream of the Category 2 cells.
                |–––––– Category 4 cell Post-mitotic, mesenchymally and epidermally located progenitors downstream of the Category 3 cells.
                |–––––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
        |––– ventral epidermis Single cell layer of ventral, post-mitotic, heavily ciliated epithelial cells
                |–––––– apical epidermis surface The apical surface of the single layered epithelium epidermis that is in contact with the environment.
                |–––––– basal epidermis surface The basal surface of the epidermial epithelium in contact with the basal lamina.
definitive gutThe planarian triclad gut contains a central anterior gut branch connected to two posterior gut branches arranged around the definitive pharynx. Secondary gut branches extend laterally from the primary gut branches, while tertiary gut branches extend from the secondary branches. Food and waste enter and exit the definitive gut through the defintive pharynx.
Expand definitive gut child relations
        |––– anterior primary gut branch The single, central gut branch of the triclad gut anterior to the definitive pharynx.
        |––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
                |–––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
        |––– gastrodermis The single cell layer columnar epithelial lining of the intestine. The gastrodermis is surrounded by a basal lamina and enteric muscle.
                |–––––– goblet cell Secretory cells that release digestive enzymes into the lumen of the intestine.
                |–––––– intestinal phagocyte Absorptive digestive cells that engulf food particles for intracellular digestion.
        |––– posterior primary gut branch The primary gut branches of the triclad gut lateral and posterior to the pharynx and pharyngeal pouch.
        |––– secondary gut branch Gut branches, originating from and connected to the primary gut branches, that extend laterally towards the body edge.
        |––– tertiary gut branch Gut branches originating from and connected to the secondary gut branches.
definitive pharynx ☆A plicate and protrusible organ that is the sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad gut. It contains epithelial, muscular, secretory and neuronal cell types.
Expand definitive pharynx child relations
        |––– cavity of pharynx A anatomical space that is enclosed by a pharynx.
        |––– esophagus Attachment between the triclad gut and the proximal end of the definitive pharynx.
        |––– musculature of pharynx The total musculature within the pharynx.
                |–––––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                        |––––––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                        |––––––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
                |–––––– pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
                        |––––––––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
                        |––––––––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
                |–––––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
        |––– pharyngeal epithelium Epithelia associated with the pharynx organ.
                |–––––– inner pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the inner surface of the pharynx shaft.
                |–––––– outer pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the outer surface of the pharynx shaft. These are \"insunk\" epidermal cells in which the nuclei reside behind the layers of longitudinal and circumferential muscles and the epithelial cell body sends out a ciliated projection to the surface to cover and encase the shaft.
        |––– pharynx nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located in the definitive pharynx comprised of inner and outer wall rings.
                |–––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
                |–––––– inner pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the lumen.
                |–––––– outer pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the exterior surface.
eyeAn organ that detects light.
Expand eye child relations
        |––– optic cup A portion of the eye containing pigment cells and dendritic projections from photoreceptor neurons.
                |–––––– pigment cup cell Non-neuronal, pigmented cells arrayed along the proximal side of the optic cup.
        |––– photoreceptor neuron Bipolar photoreceptor neurons with dendritic projections into the optic cup and axons that innervate the underlying brain.
musculature of body wallAny collection of muscles that is part of a body wall [Automatically generated definition].
Expand musculature of body wall child relations
        |––– circular muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed around the dorsoventral axis. Upon regeneration, these are thought to be produced de novo in the blastema.
        |––– diagonal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed diagonally along the anteroposterior axis.
        |––– longitudinal muscle fiber Body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. Upon regeneration, these muscles are thought to be established from truncated pre-existing fibers.
                |–––––– inner longitudinal muscle fiber Inner most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thicker than the outer longitudinal muscle fibers. The pattern of these muscles differs along the dorsoventral axis, with the dorsal arrangement converging at the central zone of the anterior pole. The ventral arrangement is more parallel or may diverge slightly as it approaches the ventral pole.
                |–––––– outer longitudinal muscle fiber Outer most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thinner than the inner longitudinal muscle fibers.
ovaryA gonad containing female germline stem cells which fuel oocyte production. Two ovaries are located ventally, underneath the body wall musculature, immediately posterior to the cephalic ganglia (brain) and adjacent to the ventral nerve cords. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuel formation of the ovaries during juvenile development.
Expand ovary child relations
        |––– female germline stem cell A piwi-1+, nanos+ cell residing in the ovary that self-renews and give rise to oogonial cells that differentiate into oocytes.
        |––– oocyte A female germ cell that has entered meiosis.
        |––– oogonial cell An undifferentiated germ cell that proliferates rapidly and gives rise to oocytes.
        |––– ovarian somatic gonadal cell ophis+ somatic cells (gh4-, nanos-) in the ovary that may provide trophic support to female germline stem cells and differentiating oogonia.
penis papillaA rounded protuberance, connected to the seminal vesicles, responsible for transferring semen into a mating partner's bursal canal.
protonephridiaExcretory organs consisting of flame cells, proximal tubules, and distal tubules connected to a mesenchymal collecting duct.
Expand protonephridia child relations
        |––– distal tubule Sinusoidal, non-ciliated tubules connected to proximal tubules within the parenchyma. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells.
        |––– flame bulb Terminal structure of protonephridia unit; consists of flame cells.
                |–––––– flame cell Terminal structure of the protonephridia unit, capping the proximal tubules. Flame cells are defined by the filtration weir, which consists of closely apposed strands of cytoplasm surrounding a central cilia bundle, and by numerous microvilli between weir and cilia. Positive for acetyated tubulin.
        |––– proximal tubule Ciliated epithelial cells form tubules, generating coiled, branching units terminating in flame bulbs. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells. Proximal tubules are connected to non-ciliated distal tubules within the parenchyma.
testisA gonad containing male germline stem cells which fuel sperm production. Testes are located dorsolaterally, and are excluded from the head. The neoblast compartment, including piwi-1+, nanos+ primordial germ cells, fuels formation of testes during juvenile development and regeneration.
Expand testis child relations
        |––– male germline stem cell gh4+, nanos+ cells residing at the testis periphery that self-renew and give rise to differentiating daughters that will ultimately produce haploid sperm.
        |––– sperm A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid.
        |––– spermatid A male germ cell that develops from the haploid secondary spermatocytes. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to spermatozoa.
                |–––––– elongate spermatid Spermatids expressing protein kinase A undergoing morphogenic changes to make mature sperm.
                |–––––– round spermatid A cyst of 8 interconnected spermatocytes undergoes meiosis, producing 32 haploid round spermatids. Round spermatids express protein kinase A, and undergo morphogenesis to produce mature sperm.
        |––– spermatocyte A tektin-1+ male germ cell that develops from spermatogonia. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to spermatids.
        |––– spermatogonium An euploid male germ cell of an early stage of spermatogenesis. In planaria, the gh4+ stem cell daughter exiting the niche undergoes three rounds of transit amplifying division with incomplete cytokinesis prior to transitioning to terminal differentiation.
        |––– testis somatic gonadal cell dmd-1+ expressing somatic cells within the testis that promote male GSC maintenance. dmd-1+, ophis-1+ somatic gonadal cells ensheath germ cells via long cytoplasmic processes and promote differentiation.

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definitive tissue

termdefinition
adhesion glandsSpecialized epithelial cells located along the body margin lining the dorsoventral margin. Adhesion glands are comprised of three cell types, the viscid and relasing gland cells which penetrate through an epithelial anchor cell and terminate at the epithelial surface.
Expand adhesion glands child relations
        |––– anchor cell Specialized epithelial cell located along the dorsoventral margin that surrounds the viscid and releasing gland cells.
        |––– releasing gland cell Specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion gland which is responsible for production of releasing substance.
        |––– viscid gland cell A specialized insunk epithelial cell that is part of the adhesion glands which is responsible for production and excretion of the viscid substance allowing adherence to a substrate.
anterior primary gut branchThe single, central gut branch of the triclad gut anterior to the definitive pharynx.
bursal canalThe passageway connecting the gonopore to the bursa (genital atrium). Part of the copulatory apparatus. During mating, sperm from a partner is deposited into the bursal canal, where it collects in the bursa before travelling up the oviducts to the bursa. Egg capsules pass through the bursal canal as they are laid through the gonopore.
circular muscle fiberBody wall muscle fibers arrayed around the dorsoventral axis. Upon regeneration, these are thought to be produced de novo in the blastema.
collecting ductNon-ciliated tubules associated with the distal tubules, which cross the basement membrane and terminate in the dorsal epidermis.
copulatory bursaA chamber where egg capsules are formed. One or more zygotes and yolk cells produced by the vitelline glands collect in the copulatory bursa; glands surrounding the copulatory bursa produce the egg capsule shell.\n Nascent egg capsules exit the body by passing through the bursal canal and gonopore. The copulatory bursa is synonymous with the term genital atrium.
diagonal muscle fiberBody wall muscle fibers arrayed diagonally along the anteroposterior axis.
distal tubuleSinusoidal, non-ciliated tubules connected to proximal tubules within the parenchyma. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells.
enteric muscleVisceral muscle surrounding the definitive gut.
esophagusAttachment between the triclad gut and the proximal end of the definitive pharynx.
ganglionA biological tissue mass of nerve cell bodies.
gastrodermisThe single cell layer columnar epithelial lining of the intestine. The gastrodermis is surrounded by a basal lamina and enteric muscle.
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        |––– goblet cell Secretory cells that release digestive enzymes into the lumen of the intestine.
        |––– intestinal phagocyte Absorptive digestive cells that engulf food particles for intracellular digestion.
gonoporeThe gonopore, a component of the copulatory apparatus, is an opening located on the ventral side of the animal posterior to the definitive pharynx. The gonopore is the sole point of exit and entry for the reproductive system, allowing from reciprocal exchange of sperm during copulation and egg capsule laying.
longitudinal muscle fiberBody wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. Upon regeneration, these muscles are thought to be established from truncated pre-existing fibers.
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        |––– inner longitudinal muscle fiber Inner most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thicker than the outer longitudinal muscle fibers. The pattern of these muscles differs along the dorsoventral axis, with the dorsal arrangement converging at the central zone of the anterior pole. The ventral arrangement is more parallel or may diverge slightly as it approaches the ventral pole.
        |––– outer longitudinal muscle fiber Outer most body wall muscle fibers arrayed along the anteroposterior axis. These fibers are thinner than the inner longitudinal muscle fibers.
mouthThe sole point of entry and exit for the Triclad planarian flatworm gut. The mouth is connected to the pharyngeal pouch to allow for exit and re-entry of the definitive pharynx on the ventral side of the animal. The mouth contains several cell types, including epithelial cells, muscle, and secretory cells.
musculature of pharynxThe total musculature within the pharynx.
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        |––– pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running parallel to the diameter of the pharynx.
                |–––––– inner pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fiber that runs circumferentially about the pharynx and lies just beneath the inner logitudinal pharynx muscle fibers.
                |–––––– outer pharyngeal circular muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers thar run circumferentially about the pharynx and lie just beneath the outer longitudinal pharynx muscles.
        |––– pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior (proximal to distal).
                |–––––– inner pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie beneath both the inner circular muscle fibers and the apical, ciliated portion of the epithium lining the lumenal surface.
                |–––––– outer pharyngeal longitudinal muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers running anteroposterior which lie just underneath the apical, cilaited portion of the outer epithelium.
        |––– pharyngeal radial muscle fiber Pharynx muscle fibers that run radially, connecting the outer muscle fibers and epithelia with their inner counterparts.
neoblast compartment ☆A heterogeneous population of pluripotent, somatic adult stem cells and lineage primed progenitors that are required for maintenance and regeneration of all cell types in planaria, including the germline.
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        |––– clonogenic neoblast Pluripotent piwi-1+ stem cells that self-renew, form expanding colonies and produce differentiating daughters that contribute to multiple organ systems. cNeoblasts are predicted to be broadly distributed across the anteroposterior axis of the adult worm.
        |––– definitive pharynx progenitor cell foxA1+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters required for maintenance and regeneration of the definitive pharynx.
        |––– gamma neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass, exhibiting enriched expression of gata456a, hnf4, prox-1 and nkx2.2, implicated in maintenance and regeneration of the definitive gut.
        |––– muscle progenitor myoD+ neoblasts and their post-mitotic, differentiating daughters implicated in the maintenance and regeneration of muscles.
        |––– neural progenitor Neoblasts and their differentiating daughters implicated in maintenance and regeneration of different tissues in the nervous system.
        |––– primordial germ cell Neoblasts coexpressing piwi-1 and nanos that are required for male and female gonad formation. Primordial germ cells are present in both asexual and sexual adults.
        |––– protonephridial progenitor Neoblasts and post-mitotic, differentiating daughters coexpressing POU2-3, six1/2-2, Sal1, Eya and Osr, required for maintenance and regeneration of protonephridial cell types.
        |––– sigma neoblast A heterogeneous subpopulation of neoblasts with enriched expression of SoxP-1 and SoxP-2 thought to contain both pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific progenitors.
        |––– trail cell Ovo+ neoblasts and post-mitotic eye progenitors that simultaneously migrate and differentiate into photoreceptor neurons and non-neuronal pigment cup cells comprising the optic cup.
        |––– zeta neoblast An abundant neoblast subclass consisting of p53+, zfp1+ progenitors required for maintenance and regeneration of epidermal cell type(s).
nerve plexusAnatomical junction where subdivisions of two or more neural trees interconnect with one another to form a network through which nerve fibers of the constituent nerve trees become regrouped; together with other nerve plexuses, nerves and ganglia, it constitutes the peripheral nervous system. Examples: cervical nerve plexus, brachial nerve plexus, sacral nerve plexus[FMA].
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        |––– gastrodermal plexus A thin net of single nerve fibers located around the gut.
                |–––––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
        |––– subepidermal nerve plexus Plexus of nerves located just between the definitive epidermis and the body wall musculature.
        |––– submuscular nerve plexus Plexus of nerves that innervate the body wall muscles.
optic chiasmaA decussation of the diencephalon where the fibers of the optic nerve cross
optic cupA portion of the eye containing pigment cells and dendritic projections from photoreceptor neurons.
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        |––– pigment cup cell Non-neuronal, pigmented cells arrayed along the proximal side of the optic cup.
oviduct epitheliumCiliated epithelium lining the oviduct.
parenchymal musculatureDorsal-ventral muscle fibers present through the mesenchyme.
pharyngeal epitheliumEpithelia associated with the pharynx organ.
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        |––– inner pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the inner surface of the pharynx shaft.
        |––– outer pharyngeal epithelium Heavily ciliated epidermal cells covering the outer surface of the pharynx shaft. These are \"insunk\" epidermal cells in which the nuclei reside behind the layers of longitudinal and circumferential muscles and the epithelial cell body sends out a ciliated projection to the surface to cover and encase the shaft.
pharyngeal pouchAn epithelial structure housing the definitive pharynx, connected to the esophagus and mouth.
pharynx nerve plexusPlexus of nerves located in the definitive pharynx comprised of inner and outer wall rings.
Expand pharynx nerve plexus child relations
        |––– enteric neuron Neuron that is part of the enteric nervous system.
        |––– inner pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the lumen.
        |––– outer pharynx nerve plexus Ring of the pharynx nerve plexus that is proximal to the exterior surface.
posterior primary gut branchThe primary gut branches of the triclad gut lateral and posterior to the pharynx and pharyngeal pouch.
proximal tubuleCiliated epithelial cells form tubules, generating coiled, branching units terminating in flame bulbs. Tubules are formed via intercellular junctions between two epithelial cells. Proximal tubules are connected to non-ciliated distal tubules within the parenchyma.
secondary gut branchGut branches, originating from and connected to the primary gut branches, that extend laterally towards the body edge.
seminal vesicleGlandular pouches adjoining the sperm ducts which produce seminal fluid.
sperm ductA network of tubes that transport sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. Tubes connect each testis to ducts that run along the ventral nerve cords. The ducts bifurcate immediately posterior to the pharynx, where they connect to the seminal vesicles.
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        |––– sperm duct epithelium Ciliated epithelium lining the sperm duct.
        |––– sperm duct lumen Anatomical space enclosed by the sperm duct epithelium.
tertiary gut branchGut branches originating from and connected to the secondary gut branches.
tubaA sperm storage organ located immediately posterior to the ovary, at the anterior end of the oviduct. Oocytes exiting the ovary are fertilized in the tuba as they enter the oviduct.
Expand tuba child relations
        |––– tuba lumen Anatomical space enclosed by tuba. Oocyte(s) are fertilized in the tuba lumen by sperm that traveled up the oviduct.
vitelline glandGlands surrounding the oviducts which produce yolk cells. Yolk cells deposited into the oviducts travel to the genital atrium where they are packaged, along with one or more zygotes, into developing egg capsules.

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developing anatomical structure

termdefinition
embryonic cellA cell of the embryo.
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        |––– blastomere An undifferentiated, cycling embryonic cell in Stage 1-5 embryos that expresses piwi-1, numerous adult asexual neoblast enriched genes, and early embryo enriched genes.
embryonic structureAnatomical structure that is part of an embryo.
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        |––– blastomere compartment Undifferentiated, zygote-derived cleavage progeny that give rise to temporary embryonic tissues during Stage 2, continue dividing asynchronously in the embryonic wall, and ultimately give rise to neoblasts and adult lineage progenitors beginning in Stage 5.
embryonic wallThe parenchymal space between the gut cavity and the primitive ectoderm containing undifferentiated blastomeres in Stage 3-5 embryos.
extraembryonic cell
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        |––– primitive ectoderm cell Primitive ectoderm cells differentiate from the blastomere population, exit the cell cycle and interact to boud the embryo during Stage 2.
        |––– primitive gut cell Four large phagocytic cells associated with the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx circular muscle cell Differentiated muscle cell present in a circular muscle fiber of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx epithelial cell foxA1+ epithelial cell contained in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx neuronal cell A neuronal cell innervating the temporary embryonic pharynx. Four neurons innervate the radial muscle fibers that ring the oral opening.
        |––– temporary embryonic pharynx radial muscle cell Differentiated radial muscle cell present in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
extraembryonic structureA multicellular anatomical structure that is associated with an embryo and derived from the zygote from which it develops, but which does not contribute to the embryo proper or to structures that are part of the same organism after embryogenesis.
Expand extraembryonic structure child relations
        |––– embryonic digestive system A cryptic digestive system in Stage 3-6 embryos comprised of temporary embryonic cell types and organs, including the temporary embryonic pharynx and primitive gut cells. Embryonic gut cells, likely produced from blastomeres, form a phagocytic tissue layer surrounding the inner gut cavity during Stages 4-6. It is not known whether the embryonic gut is temporary embryonic tissue or a definitive tissue. For convenience, the embryonic gut is currently designated as an extraembryonic structure because cell type specific markers for the embryonic gut do not stain the definitive gut in hatchlings or adult animals.
                |–––––– embryonic digestive system element Any of the cell types, tissues, organs or elements that are part of the embryonic digestive system. Examples include the temporary embryonic pharynx, primitive gut cells, embryonic gut cells and the central gut cavity.
                        |––––––––– embryonic gut cavity Lumen of embryonic digestive tract, prior to formation of the branched defintive gut.
                        |––––––––– embryonic gut cell Dispersed, phagocytic gut cells that appear during Stage 4 and ultimately generate a honeycomb-like lattice surrounding the central gut cavity in Stage 5 embryos. Early embryonic gut cell specific transcripts are expressed from Stage 4-6, and are downregulated during Stage 7.
                        |––––––––– embryonic gut cell surface The surface of phagocytic embryonic gut cells in contact with ingested yolk cells.
                        |––––––––– primitive gut cell Four large phagocytic cells associated with the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                        |––––––––– primtive gut surface The surface of the primitive gut cells in contact with the embryonic wall.
                        |––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx An innervated, muscular pump that ingests yolk cells into the gut cavity. The temporary embryonic pharynx is an extraembryonic tissue that forms during Stage 2, functions during Stages 3-5, and degenerates during Stages 6-7.
                                |–––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx circular muscle fiber A muscle fiber that encircles the luminal opening of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                                        |––––––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx circular muscle cell Differentiated muscle cell present in a circular muscle fiber of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                                |–––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx epithelial cell foxA1+ epithelial cell contained in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                                |–––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx lumen epithelial surface The epithelial surface lining the interior of the temporary embryonic pharynx, facing the lumen.
                                |–––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx neuronal cell A neuronal cell innervating the temporary embryonic pharynx. Four neurons innervate the radial muscle fibers that ring the oral opening.
                                |–––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx radial muscle fiber A muscle fiber that connects and runs perpendicular to a circular muscle fiber surrounding the luminal opening of the temporary embryonic pharynx.
                                        |––––––––––––––– temporary embryonic pharynx radial muscle cell Differentiated radial muscle cell present in the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– primitive ectoderm A single cell layer of extraembryonic, post-mitotic ectodermal cells bounding the embryo. The primitive ectoderm forms during Stage 2 and is thought to degenerate as the definitive epidermis forms during Stages 5-7.
                |–––––– primitive ectoderm cell Primitive ectoderm cells differentiate from the blastomere population, exit the cell cycle and interact to boud the embryo during Stage 2.
                |–––––– primitive ectoderm surface The apical surface of the single layered primitive ectoderm that is in contact with the environment.

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regenerating anatomical structure

termdefinition
blastemaA regenerating tissue composed of a proliferative mass of undifferentiated progenitor cells from which new differentiated structures arise
primordiumPrimordia are populations of contiguous cells that are morphologically distinct and already correspond in extent to a later organ/tissue.

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organism subdivision

termdefinition
definitive organism subdivisionAnatomical structure which is a subdivision of a whole adult or juvenile organism, consisting of components of multiple anatomical systems.
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        |––– anterior Position along the anteroposterior axis closer to the head rather than the tail.
                |–––––– anterior pole Distinct anterior cluster of muscle cells located at the midline which express notum, follistatin, zic-1, and foxD.
                |–––––– head The head is the anterior-most division of the body [GO].
                |–––––– neck Region of the juvenile or adult animal between the posterior end of the cephalic ganglia and the anterior end of the definitive pharynx.
                        |––––––––– asexual neck Region of the asexual biotype animal between the posterior end of the cephalic ganglia and the anterior end of the definitive pharynx.
                        |––––––––– sexual neck Region of the juvenile or adult sexual biotype animal between the posterior end of the cephalic ganglia and the anterior end of the definitive pharynx.
        |––– dorsal Position along the dorsoventral axis that is above the anteroposterior axis, or closer to the back.
        |––– parapharyngeal region Region of the animal lateral to and surrounding the pharyngeal pouch.
                |–––––– asexual parapharyngeal region Region of the asexual biotype animal lateral to and surrounding the pharyngeal pouch.
                |–––––– sexual parapharyngeal region Region of the sexual biotype animal lateral to and surrounding the pharyngeal pouch.
        |––– posterior Position along the anteroposterior axis that is closer to the tail rather than the head.
                |–––––– copulatory region Portion of the sexual biotype body plan immediately posterior to the parapharyngeal region, and immediately anterior to the tail. Encompasses the copulatory apparatus.
                |–––––– posterior pole Distinct posterior cluster of muscle cells located at the midline which express wnt1." [PMID:18063755] {comment="PMID:21680047}
                |–––––– tail Caudal region, beginning at the mouth and ending at posterior pole.
                        |––––––––– asexual tail
                        |––––––––– sexual tail
                        |––––––––– tail stripe Medial region of the tail; the parenchymal space between the posterior primary gut branches.
        |––– ventral Position along the dorsoventral axis that is below the anteroposterior axis, or closer to the belly.
embryonic organism subdivisionAnatomical structure which is a subdivision of a whole developing/ embryonic organism, consisting of components of multiple anatomical systems.
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        |––– aboral hemisphere Stage 3-5 embryo hemisphere centered around the pole opposite the temporary embryonic pharynx.
        |––– embryonic wall The parenchymal space between the gut cavity and the primitive ectoderm containing undifferentiated blastomeres in Stage 3-5 embryos.
        |––– oral hemisphere Stage 3-5 embryo hemisphere centered around the temporary embryonic pharynx.

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