nervous system

▻ Planarian Anatomy Ontology Class Overview

▻ Embryonic Molecular Fate Mapping

  ▻ Description

  ▻ Figures

  ▻ In Situ Hybridization Data

  ▻ Sequences

  ▻ References




Planarian Anatomy Ontology Class Overview

For more information about the ontology visit PLANA Overview


NAME:

  nervous system


DEFINITON:

  The nervous system is an organ system containing predominantly neuron and glial cells. In bilaterally symmetrical organisms, it is arranged in a network of tree-like structures connected to a central body. The main functions of the nervous system are to regulate and control body functions, and to receive sensory input, process this information, and generate behavior [CUMBO].


TERM DEFINITION CITATIONS:

  UBERON:0001016


TERM CITATIONS:


TERM ID:

  PLANA:0000025


ABOUT THIS TERM:

nervous system

  ↳is a anatomical system

  ↳part of sexual organism


  → neural progenitor cell develops into nervous system


  → central nervous system and peripheral nervous system is a nervous system


Expand to see terms that part of nervous system


BROWSE PLANARIAN ONTOLOGY TREE (IN OLS):

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EXPLORE ONTOLOGY GRAPH:


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Embryonic Molecular Fate Mapping


All experimental data displayed here is from Davies et. al., 2017, Smed Embryogenesis Molecular Staging Resource


DESCRIPTION:   

WISH developmental time course data for two markers expressed in differentiated neurons, synaptotagmin and PC-2, suggests that the nervous system is limited to neurons in the temporary embryonic pharynx of S2-S5 embryos (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 D, Figure 1 – figure supplement 12 A). Validated and presumptive neural progenitor markers showing low to undetectable expression during early embryogenesis are upregulated as organogenesis commences during S5 (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 A) (Cowles et al., 2013; Currie and Pearson, 2013; Lapan and Reddien, 2012; März et al., 2013; Monjo and Romero, 2015; Scimone et al., 2014; Wenemoser et al., 2012), and many transcripts exhibiting enriched expression in adult neurons show upregulated expression during and after S5 (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 C). During S6 and S7, neural progenitors and their descendants must migrate, interact, and organize themselves into two bilaterally symmetric cephalic ganglia and the attendant ventral nerve cords, commissural and peripheral neurons (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 D). Differentiating neurons accumulate in the presumptive anterior region of the embryo, adjacent to the D/V margin, as the cephalic ganglia form (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 B,D, cyan arrows). Ventral nerve cord formation is evident during S6, and appears to proceed from anterior to posterior (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 D, cyan arrowheads). Gross morphology of the nervous system is comparable to that of adult animals during S7-S8 (Figure 1 – figure supplement 16 B,D).


 

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FIGURES:


Figure 1 – figure supplement 16: Molecular markers for the developing nervous system

A, C: Average RPKM values per embryo for validated and putative adult neural progenitor transcripts (Cowles et al., 2013; Currie and Pearson, 2013; Lapan and Reddien, 2012; März et al., 2013; Monjo and Romero, 2015; Scimone et al., 2014; Wenemoser et al., 2012) (A) and adult neural classifier transcripts identified in single cell sequencing experiments (Wurtzel et al., 2015) (C), Y (yolk), Stage (S) S2-S8.  Neural transcripts that showed enriched expression during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8 are flagged in excel tables for S5-S8 enriched transcripts (Figure 1 – source data 5, Figure 1 – source data 6, Figure 1 – source data 7, Figure 1 – source data 8). 90% (n=533) of the neural enriched transcripts reported in (Wurtzel et al., 2015) were identified in the smed20140614 transcriptome; 60% (n=323) of the cross-referenced transcripts were enriched during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8. 

B, D: Expression of the neural progenitor marker pax6a (B) and the neural marker synaptotagmin (syt, D) (blue), S2-S8. Anterior: top (S6-S8). O: oral hemisphere. A: aboral hemisphere. D: dorsal. V: ventral. Black arrowheads: temporary embryonic pharynx.  Red arrowheads: definitive pharynx. Cyan arrows: cephalic ganglia. Cyan arrowheads: ventral nerve cords. Scale bars: 100 µm.

 

 

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IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION DATA:


Smed IDAccessionNameAliasExpressed during stage(s)Tissue/PatternImages
SMED30024586AFJ24746.1Pax6Apax6AStage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8nervous system, neural progenitor cell
SMED30022907SynaptotagminDj-sytStage 3, Stage 4, Stage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8embryonic digestive system, ventral nerve cord, neuron, cephalic ganglia, nervous system, embryonic pharynx
Click to see image symbols and abbreviations
Abbreviation or symbolDefinition
Ooral hemisphere
Aaboral hemisphere
Ddorsal
Vventral
Llateral
black arrowheadembryonic pharynx
red arrowheaddefinitive pharynx
black arrowsprimitive gut
yellow arrowsprimitive ectoderm cells
cyan arrowsbrain
cyan arrowheadsnerve cords
blue arrowheadseye progenitors (trail cells)
purple arrowheadseyes
scale bar100 µm

 

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SEQUENCES:

smed_20140614 transcript sequences for genes validated by in situ hybridization (above).

>SMED30019471 ID=SMED30019471|Name=Synaptotagmin|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=1910bp
TTTGGGACTTCTCCAATCTATTAAATATATTTAGAACGAACATCGTTGTGAGAAGCTTTGTCTTGCAAATGCACACCAAC
ACATTCTCTGCCTACTCGAGACCAGCCTGAAGGACGCACCCAGTCATCTCTTATAAAAAAAAAACTCTTCTCTGATTCGG
TATTTTCTGATTAATGGAGATCAAACAATGATTGGGCAACGTCTAGTTTAGAATATTTACAACTAAATCTGCGTATTTCA
ATTTTTTTTCGATTTTGATTGTTGCAAATATTTATGAGTATATCCAATAATATAAGCAGCGCTAGTAATATGACGATAAA
AATGCAACAAAATGTTGAAAAGTCTGTATCACAGCATGTAACAGCGCAAACAAAGGAATCAACATCAAATAAACTTCATA
CAACAACAGCCGGTATCTCGGTTTTGGAGAAAACATTAAAAACATTTCACATGAGTACTGGCACTTTGATTGGAATCGGA
GTTACAGTGTCTATCGTAGTTTTATTACTTCTTTATTGTATTTGCAAACGATGCATTAAGAAACGAAAGAAAAAGAAAGA
TGGCGGCAAAAAAGGTGGAAAAGGCGTAGACATGAAAAGCGTACAACTATTAGGAAATGCTTATAAAGAAAAGGTACAGC
CGGACCTAGAAGAACTGGATGCTAACATGGAAGATAATGAAGGGGCGCAAGATAAAGAAGCAGTCAATCTTGGAAAATTA
CAGTATTCCCTTGATTACGATTTTACAAAAGGCGAGCTAACAGTCGGAGTAATTCAAGCCACAGATCTCCCAGCAATGGA
CATGTCAGGAACTTCTGATCCATATGTGAAAGTTTTTCTATTACCGGATAAAAAGAAAAAATTCGAAACCAAAGTTCATC
GAAAAATATTAAATCCAGTCTTTAATGAGACATTTGTATTCAAGATTCCTTATTCTGAGGTCGGGTCTAAAACTTTGGTA
TTTAATGTTTTCGATTTCGACAGATTTTCAAAGCATGATCAAATTGGGCAAATCCAAATTCCACTGGGTTCAGTAGATTT
ATGCAAAGTTATTGAGGAATGGAAGGAACTCGGCCCACCTGACAGTGATAATGAAAAGGAAAATCGATTAGGAGACATTT
GTTTTTCTTTGAGATATGTTCCAACGTCTGGAAAGTTGAATATCGTCATTCTGGAAGCTAAAAACCTCAAGAAAATGGAT
GTTGGAGGATTGTCGGATCCTTACGTGAAACTATCGTTGATGCTTAACGGCAAACGAGTGAAAAAGAAGAAAACCACAAT
AAAAAAATACACATTAAATCCTTATTATAATGAGTCATTTTCATTCGAAGTTCCATTCGAGCAAATACAAAAAGTTAATT
TAATAGTGACAGTAGTTGATTATGATAGAATTGGAACAAGTGAACCTATTGGAAGAGTAGTTCTTGGATGCAATGCTACA
GGAGCAGAACTTCGGCACTGGTCCGATATGCTTGCTAATCCTAGGAGACCAATTGCCCAGTGGCATACCCTTCAAGATAT
GCCGGAGAAGAGCTGATTTCATTGATTTTAATTTTAAAATCTGTCATATTTTGTGATAAATTTTGCGTATTTATACAATC
ATTCGATTCGATCTTTCCATCAAGTTTCGTAAAATCTGCAGACATTCACGAGGATGCAGAAGAAATAGAAACTTTGTAAT
AAATTAGCATTAGCTGTGATCTCCTATTGACCAAAAAACATAAACTTAATTTTTATAAAGAATTGTGGTGAAATGTTGTT
AGGTTTCAGTCATAGATAACTGTATTTGTGTAATAGTTTGTGTATTTCTCGTCCTGGCCCGATTTTGTGCATTCCACTGG
CAATACTATTTCACTAATAAATTATGTCTGATAATGTATACCAGTATAGGATTTTGTTTGAATTAATGAA
>SMED30022907 ID=SMED30022907|Name=Synaptotagmin|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=1814bp
ATTTATTGAAAATTATTTTTTCTATTATTAGGAGAAAATTGATTATTTTTTTTTGACAAAATAAGTTTTGGATATATTTC
CCATTTGTTTGTATTCGTAAACCAATGAAGAATTCGACTCACGGATCGGATCATTCGGCCAGCAAGGCCAGTATGAAAAC
GAATGTGGAAAAATTTTGGCATGATCTCGGAAAAAAATTGCACATGGATCCAAAAGCATTAATAGGAGTAACAATCGGTT
TGGGAATATTGTTTTTGTTGTTCCTTTATTGCTTATGTAAAAAATGTGTTTTCAAGCGTCGAAAAAAGAAGGAAACGGCC
AAAAAAGGAGCCAAGGGAGTAGTCGATATGAAAAGTGCCCAATTGTTGGGGAATTCATATAAAGAAAAAATTCAACCCGA
TCTTGAAGAACTTGATGCAAACATGGAAGACAATGAAGGTGTAAAAGAAAAAGAAGATGTTCATTTAGGAAAATTACAAT
ATTCTCTAGATTATGATTTTCAGAAAGGAGAATTAACTGTTGGAGTTATTCAAGCAACTGATCTTCCAGCTATGGATATG
TCAGGAACATCAGATCCATATGTCAAATTATACCTTCTCCCAGACAAGAAAAAGAAATTCGAAACAAAGGTTCATAGGAA
AATTTTAAATCCTGTATTCAATGAAACTTTTGTTTTCAAAGTTCCTTTCAATGAAGTTGCATCGAAGACTTTGATTTTCA
ACGTTTATGACTTTGACAGATTTTCCAAACACGATCAAATCGGTCAAATAAAAGTACCATTGGGAGCTATAGATTTAGGT
CGAGTTATTGAAGAATGGAAGGAACTGGAATCTCCAGAAAACGATGGGGAAAAGGAAAACAGGTTGGGAGACATTTGTTT
CTCTTTAAGATACGTACCGACATCTGGAAAGCTTACAATAGTCATTTTGGAAGCAAAGAATCTTAAAAAAATGGATGTCG
GAGGATTGTCTGATCCATATGTTAAACTTTCCTTGATGCTTAATGGTAAACGAGTGAAGAAGAAGAAAACTACCATCAAA
AAGTATACACTAAATCCTTACTACAATGAATCATTTTCCTTTGAAGTACCATTCGAACAAATACAAAAAGTGAACTTGAT
CGTCACGGTTGTTGATTATGACAGAATCGGAACCAGCGAACCGATAGGTAGAATTGTTCTGGGATGTAACGCAACTGGAG
CAGAATTGCGACATTGGTCGGATATGTTGGCAAATCCCCGGCGACCAATCGCCCAGTGGCATACCCTCCAAGAGATGCCA
GAGAACAATTGATAGTGTTCGTTTGATGCTTTAAAGCGGTTTGCATAATTCGTGAAATAAGTTATCAAAATTTGAGAAAT
GTTTTTTTTTCTGAAACAAAAATGGCATGAGACAATATACCAGAGTTCATTAGTGTGTGGTTTCGTTGAATATTTTGGTG
GTGTTGCATCTTATCGTTTGTCCTCTAATCTAATAATGTTTTATTCTTTATATAGCTGATTTATTCTCGAGCGAAACATT
TTTTATGTGTACCAAAATACTTATGTCATAGCCATTGTGATTAGTCTGTAAACTATTGCGTAATAGCCCCTCTCATTGGC
TTTTTTTAAGAGTAGTGAGTTGGAAAAAAAAATACAAAAATGACTTCAATTGTTAAACATTACTCATATTTTATCAGTAA
GTTAACTTGCATATTTGCAGTTAATTATGGCATTTTATCTCTAAATCTCTGAAGCATGGCCTCAAGTCTTTTGTTTGTTT
TAATGTAATTATGTCTAGATGAGAATATTAAAATACTTCGGTTTATATAAAAGA
>SMED30024586 ID=SMED30024586|Name=Pax6A|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=1992bp
GTTGGTTTTTCTAACAGATTTATTAATGCTAGATTGGCCGCTCAAGATTAATCATAATATTCTGCTACTTTACTGATATA
ATTTTTATACACGGTTACTACTACTCCTCTACTATTTTCGCATTGTTGGCTTCTCAAATTCAATCCCTGGGCATAAATCA
AACCGCTTCATTGACAAAATCCTTTTTGACACTACAAGAAATTGATTCAGTTACTGAAGTAGAAAATATACACAGTCGAA
ACCTATGACCGAATCGAATGAAGAGGAAATAAAAAATAAAAAGAAAGTTAAACGAGGACATTCAGGAATCAATCAATTAG
GTGGAATGTTTGTCAACGGTCGACCTTTGCCCGATTCGACCCGACAGAGAATCGTTGAGTTGGCTCACTCCGGAGCGAGA
CCATGTGATATTTCCCGAATCCTCCAAGTTTCCAATGGATGCGTCAGTAAAATCCTATGCAGATACTACGAAACCGGTTC
AATTCGACCGAAAGCCATCGGAGGCAGCAAACCAAGAGTAGCTACCAGTTCAGTTGTGTCGAAAATTGCCGCCTACAAAC
GTGAATGCCCGTCGATATTTTCTTGGGAAATTCGCGATAGATTATTACAGGAAGGGGTTTGCAATCAGGATAACATTCCC
AGTGTCTCTTCGATAAATCGTGTTCTACGCAGTTTGTCTAATGAAAACCAACGACATTTAGTTGCAGCAACTGGAATGTA
TGACAAACTGTCATTGTTAAGCGGCCAGCCTTGGTCTACTGCAGCTGCTCATGCGGCTTGGTATTCCAGTGCTGCAGCAG
CACATGGGTATGCTTCATCGACATTTCCCAATTGTGGTGCCTATGGAGGCTTAACCGGAATCGGAATTATCAATGGAATG
AGTACAGCCCACGCGGTAGCGTCAATTAATCAGTCGAATTCCGGGGTCACAAATTACCATGTTCAATCAACAACCGATAG
TTCCGACAAACACAAATCAGAAAAATATTCAGAATCCATTGCACATTCTGAATCGAATGCTTCCAGTGAGCCTGGCAACG
AATATATGTCCGGAGTAAAAAGTGAGAATGATGATATGAGAATTAAACTGAAAAGGAAACTTCAAAGAAATCGAACATCG
TTTTCAACAGATCAGCTTGATTCTTTGGAAAAAGAATTTGAACGAACTCATTATCCTGATGTATTCGCCAGAGAGAAATT
GGCAGACAAAATCAGTCTTCCAGAGGCGAGAATACAAGTTTGGTTTTCAAATCGAAGAGCAAAATGGAGACGAGAAGAAA
AACTTCGTCGACAACGGCAAAATCTTATGCTTGGTTCAAACGGAACAAGTTCTACTGCTGATACTAATGTAACAACAAAT
GGAAATACTCAATGTTTGTCGACAACCGGACAAAATTCAATGGGATTTTCTGGAATAAATGATATCAGAAACCAATTTGG
TGATGTTGGAATGCAAACACCTTCATTGTCGGCTGTAGCAGCTGCAGGAATGTACCATTCGGCAGTTGCCTCTGCTGCAG
ATCAGTATGCAAAATCAGCCGGTTTACCAAATCTTTCGCAATCGTCAATCAATTCTCCATATTCCTACATGGCAAATTTG
CAGTCGAGATCCAGTGGTTCCCAAATTGACTTGCCAAACGTTACAAGCAATTCAAATTCTTTTTACAACCCCGGATCAGT
TTATCCCCCAAGTTTATTTCAAGGTGTAATGAGAGGATATGACACCATTGGATATCCCAAGTATCCTTCAGCAATGTTTC
CAGGATCACTCGAAAGTAATAATAATATCAACCCTGCCGGTTTTCTTGCAAATAATATGTCTTCGAATTCATCTAAACCC
GATTACGATTTCTCAGCATTTAATCGGCCCAGCAATTATTGGACTCCGGTCGCATAAAATTGCACAAATGAATGAAAACA
ATTTCAAAAATTCCGAAACAACAATGATTAGAACAAAAAAAACATTTTTCTAAAATAGTTGTTAATTTAAAC

 

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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES:


Cowles, M.W., Brown, D.D., Nisperos, S.V., Stanley, B.N., Pearson, B.J., and Zayas, R.M. (2013). Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH gene family in planarians identifies factors required for adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. Development 140, 4691-4702.

Currie, K.W., and Pearson, B.J. (2013). Transcription factors lhx1/5-1 and pitx are required for the maintenance and regeneration of serotonergic neurons in planarians. Development 140, 3577-3588.

Lapan, S.W., and Reddien, P.W. (2012). Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration. Cell Rep 2, 294-307. 

März, M., Seebeck, F., and Bartscherer, K. (2013). A Pitx transcription factor controls the establishment and maintenance of the serotonergic lineage in planarians. Development 140, 4499-4509. 

Monjo, F., and Romero, R. (2015). Embryonic development of the nervous system in the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Dev Biol 397, 305-319.

Scimone, M.L., Kravarik, K.M., Lapan, S.W., and Reddien, P.W. (2014). Neoblast specialization in regeneration of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Stem Cell Reports 3, 339-352.

Wenemoser, D., Lapan, S.W., Wilkinson, A.W., Bell, G.W., and Reddien, P.W. (2012). A molecular wound response program associated with regeneration initiation in planarians. Genes Dev 26, 988-1002.

 

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