digestive system

The Planarian Anatomoy Ontology (PLANA) is a collection of terms curated from the literature and other organism anatomy ontologies to describe anatomical features, life cycle stages and developmental processes in the regenerative flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. The latest version of the PLANA Ontology is available through the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology Foundry (OBO) . PLANA Ontology terms are searchable at the EMBL-EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) and the PLANA Ontology Terms Page.

Below, the Overview Section is populated with infomration from the OLS.

Additional experimental information related to PLANA Ontology terms can be found in the Additional Term Information Section.



    ▻ Planarian Anatomy Ontology Term Overview

    ▻ Additional Term Information

      ▻ Description

      ▻ Figures

      ▻ In Situ Hybridization Data

      ▻ Sequences

      ▻ References




    Planarian Anatomy Ontology Term Overview


    NAME:

      digestive system


    DEFINITON:

      Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.


    TERM CITATIONS:

      

    TERM ID:

      PLANA:0000049


    ABOUT THIS TERM:

      digestive system "is a" anatomical system

      digestive system "existence overlaps" juvenile, asexual adult and sexually mature adult


      pharyngeal pouch, mouth, gamma neoblast, definitive gut and definitive pharynx "is a" digestive system


    BROWSE ONTOLOGY TREE (IN OLS):

    Click on the '-' and '+' to collapse and expand term 'is a' and 'part of' relationships.


    Planarian Anatomy Ontology


    EXPLORE ONTOLOGY GRAPH:


    Dynamically explore this term by selecting additional relationships to display ( checkboxes on the right ) and by expanding nodes by double clicking on a node. Single click on a node to display the definition below.

     

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    Additional Term Information


    All experimental data displayed here is from Davies et. al., 2017, Smed Embryogenesis Molecular Staging Resource


    DESCRIPTION:   

    Four yolk-laden primitive gut cells associate with the temporary embryonic pharynx (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 B-D, black arrows), and can frequently be detected in unstained specimens. Yolk ingested through the temporary embryonic pharynx collects in the central gut cavity.

    Definitive gut development may begin as early as S4, with the production of isolated phagocytic cells that gradually form a continuous, honeycomb-like lattice beneath the embryonic wall (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 B-D). Embryonic gut markers, identified amongst the S4-S5 enriched transcripts, were expressed in gut tissue through S6 and were subsequently downregulated as branching morphogenesis proceeded in elongated S7 embryos (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 A-D). The progenitor population(s) for embryonic gut cell type(s) are not known.  These early intestinal cells may represent a transient population, turning over during S6-S7, or they may persist, changing their expression signature as morphogenesis proceeds.

    Expression of gamma (g) class neoblast transcripts, including gata456a and hnf4, was detected in the temporary embryonic pharynx during S2, and in scattered cells in the embryonic wall during S5 (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 E-G, Figure 6 B); a similar expression pattern was reported for Spol gata456a (Martín-Durán and Romero, 2011). The anarchic distribution of putative gut progenitors during embryogenesis is reminiscent of the systemic distribution of gut progenitors in the adult parenchyma, as well as the uniform incorporation of neoblast progeny into the adult gut during growth and homeostasis (Forsthoefel et al., 2011). In the adult gut, neoblast progeny incorporated into both new and preexisting gut tissue during regeneration, and morphallaxis of the gut required stem cell activity (Forsthoefel et al., 2011). Branching morphogenesis begins during S6-S7, as gut cells ingress from the anterior dorsoventral margins of the embryo, forming the secondary branches (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 F-G, I). As in the adult, branching morphogenesis may proceed locally and may be reliant upon the incorporation of differentiating progeny, and/or remodeling of differentiated gut tissue.  Separation of the two posterior gut branches also occurs during S6-S7, concomitant with the development of the definitive pharynx and a medial, muscular septum running from the pharynx pouch to the posterior pole (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 F-G, I). Many molecular markers of adult gut tissue are expressed during S5 or later (Forsthoefel et al., 2012; Wurtzel et al., 2015), suggesting that gut maturation is a gradual process (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 H). Newborn hatchlings are born with yolk-filled intestines, and it may take up to one week to completely digest and clear the yolk from the gut. 


     

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    FIGURES:


    Figure 1 – figure supplement 13: Molecular markers for the developing gut

    A, E, H: Average RPKM values per embryo for A) embryonic gut transcripts cathepsin L1-like (CTSL-like: SMED30023322), lysosomal alpha glucosidase-like (LYAG-like: SMED30028442, SMED30008977), macrophage-expressed gene 1 like-3 (MPEG1-like-3: SMED30015696), E) gamma (g) class neoblast transcripts (gata456a, hnf4, prox-1, nkx2.2), and H) transcripts with enriched expression in the adult gut (Forsthoefel et al., 2012; Vu, 2015; Wurtzel et al., 2015) Yolk (Y), S2-S8. Early embryonic gut transcript expression was validated by WISH on staged embryo collections. H: Adult gut-enriched transcripts with enriched expression during S5 and/or S6 (top, n=146), or S7 and/or S8 (bottom, n=292).  Adult gut enriched transcripts are flagged in lists of S5-S8 enriched transcripts (Figure 1 – source data 5, Figure 1 – source data 6, Figure 1 – source data 7, Figure 1 – source data 8).  74% (n=1112) of the intestinal phagocyte enriched transcripts reported in (Forsthoefel et al., 2012) were identified in the smed20140614 transcriptome; 129 (11%) of the cross-referenced transcripts were enriched during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8. 90% (n=425) of the gut-enriched transcripts reported in (Wurtzel et al., 2015) were identified in the smed20140614 transcriptome; 44% (n=186) of the cross-referenced transcripts were enriched during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8. 

    B-D: CTSL-like (B), LYAG-like (C) and MPEG1-like-3 (D) expression (blue) in the temporary embryonic pharynx (S2-S4), four primitive gut cells abutting the temporary embryonic pharynx (S4), and yolk-laden gut cells forming an irregular lattice beneath the embryonic wall (S5-S6). Expression of these markers was downregulated as branching morphogenesis proceeded during S7. 

    F-G: gata456a (F) and hnf4 (G) expression (blue) during embryogenesis, S2-S8.  Staining was detected in the presumptive temporary embryonic pharynx (S2), and was later detected in scattered parenchymal cells from S5 onwards. Expression of both markers became more prominent in the developing gut over time, especially after branching morphogenesis was underway during S7-S8.

    I: porcn-A expression (blue) during embryogenesis, S2-S8. Hazy, faint expression was detected in the gut during S5-S6, with increasing signal following the initiation of branching morphogenesis during S7-S8.

    B-D, F-G, I: Anterior: top (S6-S8). O: oral hemisphere. A: aboral hemisphere. D: dorsal. V: ventral. Black arrowheads: temporary embryonic pharynx.  Black arrows: primitive gut cells. Red arrowheads: definitive pharynx. Scale bars: 100 µm.

     

     

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    IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION DATA:


    Smed IDAccessionNameAliasEnriched during stage(s)Tissue/PatternImages
    SMED30027428AFJ24799.1forkhead box A-1foxA1Stage 3, Stage 4, Stage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8embryonic digestive system, definitive pharynx, definitive pharynx progenitor, digestive system, temporary embryonic pharynx
    SMED30007290AFF18488.1GATA456gata456aStage 2, Stage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8embryonic digestive system, digestive system, temporary embryonic pharynx, definitive gut, gamma neoblast
    SMED30005748AFF18489.1HNF4hnf-4Stage 2, Stage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8embryonic digestive system, digestive system, temporary embryonic pharynx, definitive gut, gamma neoblast
    SMED30025591ABW97518.1porcupine-like proteinporcn-AStage 5, Stage 6, Stage 7, Stage 8digestive system, definitive gut
    Click to see image symbols and abbreviations
    Abbreviation or symbolDefinition
    Ooral hemisphere
    Aaboral hemisphere
    Ddorsal
    Vventral
    Llateral
    black arrowheadembryonic pharynx
    red arrowheaddefinitive pharynx
    black arrowsprimitive gut
    yellow arrowsprimitive ectoderm cells
    cyan arrowsbrain
    cyan arrowheadsnerve cords
    blue arrowheadseye progenitors (trail cells)
    purple arrowheadseyes
    scale bar100 µm

     

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    SEQUENCES:

    smed_20140614 transcript sequences for genes validated by in situ hybridization (above).

    >SMED30025591 ID=SMED30025591|Name=porcupine-like protein|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=3526bp
    TTCCGATCTTTTCTTTTGAAATTTTTGAAATTTTAAATAAAATTAATGACAAAGGCAGAAAATCAGAGAACTACTAAAGC
    ATCCGACTTCAAATTTGGAAAAGAAATCGGCCATGGCTCGTTCTCAACTGTAATGATAGCTAAGGAAATTTCTACCAATA
    AACATTATGCTGCAAAAATTATTGATAAAGTTTTTATTTCTAAACAGCGAATGGTTAATACTGTTATGATTGAAAAAGAA
    GTTCTCCGAAGAATAAATCACCAGTTTTTTGTATGTCTCAATTATACATTCCAAGATCCAGAGAGATTGTATTTTATTAT
    ATCATATGCCGAACGAGGAGAACTTTTATCTCATTTAACAAGACTTTCGTGTTTTGATTTAACGTGCACACAATTTTATT
    CCGCGGAAATTATTCTTGCATTAGAATATTTACATGGAATTAACGTTGTTCATCGAGATATAAAACCAGAAAATATTTTA
    CTGAGTGAAAATATGCATATAAAAATTTGTGATTTTGGCAGTGCAATTATTATCGATAAACCAGATCTCAAGCCTTCTTC
    TTTTACAGGTACAGCTCAATTCGTTTCTCCAGAAATGCTGGGATTCAGTAAAGAAACACGTGACAATAGCTATTCAGATG
    AACCGAATTCTGATTCAGAGGAACATAGCGAAATTGAAGTTAAACGAACTAGTTCACCTGATAATTCTAGGGAAATATTA
    TATCTAATGGACTTCTGGGCATTAGGATGCATCGTCTATCAAATGTTGTCTGGACGAATGCCATTTCACGTCAGGCATTC
    ACGGCATGAATATGAAATTTTCCAAAAGATCCGAAATTTAAAATATGAGTTTCCGGTTGGGTTTGATGATACTGCTAAAG
    ATTTTGTCTCTAAACTTCTTGTATTGAATCCACTGGAAAGATTAGGCAATCCATCCGATGGAAAGCACGCTGCTTTAAAA
    GCCCACCCCCTTTTCCGTTCAATTGATTTCGAAATTATCGGATCACAAAAACCTCCGCTATTACTTCCAAATATTGAGCC
    CATTGTTCAAAGTAATTGGGACGAAATTCCTGTTGGTTTTGAAGAAGCATGGAAATTCAATATCAAAAAAGAGTTTCAAG
    AAATGGAAAAAGCCGATAAACAAAAATTATTGCAAAACCAAGAAAAACTAAATCCGTTTCATAGATTTGTACGCAATCGA
    TTGATCATAAAACAAGGCATCTTGTACAAACGGCGTGGATTATTTACTCGTAAAAGAATGTTTCTATTAACTGAAGGACC
    TCATTTATTTTATGTCGACCCCGATGCTATGCAATTTAAAAAAGAAGTCAGTCTAAACTTAATTACTGGCATAGAAGTAA
    AAAATGACAAAGTATTTTATATCGTTACTAAAAGGCGAACATATTTTCTCGAAGATCCTTCAGCAAAGGCTGATGAATGG
    CGACAGAGTATTGAATCGATTTGTGTAGAATATTATGGATCATTTAAATTATCCCCTGGCACTTGCACTCAAACGCCTCT
    AGTTACATCATCTGAATCATAACTTTCGGTTTTATTTAAATTTATTTGTCATATAGAAAAAAATGTGAATTTAACGGTTT
    TTAATATAATAATTTAATATTGGTTTGAATTCTTGTTTTTCATTTTAAAATTTAATGGATATAATTTAAATATTTTAATA
    AATAAAAATATTCACATTGTTTTAATATTCTCTTTATGTCGTAATTGATAAATGATGCATTGTAAATGTATTTTACAACT
    GATCTAAATGAAACCAATAGGAAACGAGTGGTTCGATGTCATGTGAATCAGCATGCAACCAATCATAGTTTTGTGATTCA
    TTAAATATATTTTAAATTTTTAAAACAAATTAAATCACTTAATTAATTTTTAGACAATGTCACAATTTTATGGCGGATCC
    ACGATATTGGCACCTCTATCGAACGTTATGGGTATACCAGTGGATCAAATTAATTTTATTGTGTGTAGTTTATTGTCAAT
    CGGACTGGGTCAAATTATGCGACACAAATTCCCTCCTTCTAAATTGTCAGGAAGTACAAGAGGAATCATAGAAGCATTTT
    TTGGAATACTAATTGTTCTTTTCTGCTTCGGATACCAAGTCAAGTATTTGTTACTACAATCAACAGTTTCCTATGTAATA
    CTATTATTTTTGCCTTCACAAATATCAGCGCATTTGGTAACGTATTGGTGTATGGCTTTCATGGCGATAGTCCATTTATA
    CAGGATGCATTACGATTACGGAGGTTATACTCTCGATATATCTGGTCCGGTTATGATTCAAACCCAAAAATTGACCAGCC
    TCGCATTTAATCTTCTAGATGGACATCGAATAAATCAAGGAATAAAACTGCAACAGAGAAATCATGAATCTCACGCTGTG
    AAAAAACTACCAGATGCAATCAAGTTTTTCGGTTACACATTCTACTTTCATGGTGTATTAGCGGGTCCTTTTGTATTCTA
    CAATGAATATAAAGAATATATCACTGGATATGACGACAAGCATATTCCATGCTCCAAAAAGCAATTATCTTCAGCACTTT
    GTTTATCAGTGATCCATGGATTATTAACAGCATATGTCGCACCGCAGTTTCCATATATATTTGTTTGCAGCACCGATTAC
    CAACGGATGCATATGACTCGTAGAATAATGTTCACAATGATTTCATTTTTCCTCGTAAGACAAAAGTATTACTTTGCCTG
    GTCAATGGTTGAAGCTGGTGCTCTTAGTACCGGATTGGGATATTGTGGAAAGGATAAAAACGGAGAGAATAATTGGTCGA
    AAGTGAAAAATTACGATTTCATGGCAATCGAAAGCGGCAGTAGTTTGAAAGTGCTAGTGGACGGATGGAATATTTCCACA
    ACAAGATGGCTCAGAGAATTAATTTATGAACGAGCTCCTTTATTCTGTCGGACAATTCTAGTTTTCACCGTCAGTGCATT
    TTGGCATGGATTCTATCCTGGATATTATTTGATGTTTTTGACATTTTCTCTCTTTACGTTTTGCGCTAGAACCGTTAGGA
    AACACATTCGACCATTGTTCATTGTCAGTCCAATTACACTTCAACTCTATCATGTTCTAACGAAAATATTCACAAATCTG
    GCTTTAAATTACGGACAAGGACCATTTTATTTGCTGGAGTTTCAATCGGGACTTTTGTTTTGGAAGCCATATTACTTTTT
    CGGACACGTTCTAGCAATGTTCTGCGTATTGACCTTGCAATTTCGGCCGATAATCAACGACAAAGTCAACATAATGAACA
    ATGTTTTCACCAGAAAAGCCCAATATCGGTTTCAGAAACTAAAGATCCATTTGCAGAAAAAGTTGAGATGAAATTTTATT
    GATTTTGATAATTTATATAAAATATTATAATTTTGTTTTTCGTTTTATTTTTATATCGATGAATTTATGATAAATGCTAA
    ATATTCGATCCGGAATGAATTATTATTAATCTGGTTTTTATAATTGTTCATTTTTAATAGTTTTGTTTGTTTTTCGAAAA
    TGGCGG
    >SMED30007290 ID=SMED30007290|Name=GATA456|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=2033bp
    AGGTAAGTGTCGTCATCACAAGTGGCTTTATTATTATCATTTAAATTTTTTATCATATTATCATTGATTGCTTGTTTTCC
    TCATTCAAAATTTAACTGATTGTTATCAAGCTCATTTGATAACTCCAAATCTAATTGACACTCATGTAAATATCCCATTC
    GAATTTCCGTTCCCGTCCGTAAGATCCACGATCCGACAATGTTTCTCCCATCGGTATTGTCGAATTCTCACCAGAGAAAC
    TCACCAATAATGGACATTGTATCACCAAAATCCAACACCAGCAATCTGAATGCGTTGATCACGTATTCGAATTGTCCCAA
    CATAGATCTACAGTCGAATGATCTGTCAGTGAACTTGACGAATTCTCAAAACTTCCACGAATTGGATCACAAAACCAATT
    ACGGATACAAAGTTTCAAACAACGAGACAAAACTGAATGCTTTTCCATATTTAGCTCAATCGAACTTAACAGATTGCACA
    ACAGACATCAGTGGAGATCTGAAAAATCCAAATTCACATCTCAACTATGGAAACGGAATTTCGTTCTCGGAATTTTCGAA
    AATGTCCGAAACCAACATCCACGGATATCCGCCATATTGTTTCTCCACTAAACTGTTTCCCATTCCAAATCTACAAGAGA
    AATCAATTATCAACGACAACTATTCCGTGAAATCCACCGCCGGAGGCTTTATCACCGAATCGAATGAGCATCAAAACTCT
    GTAAATACTGGAAATTCCTACAATTCCAATTTAAGCTCATACAGAACGGTAATTCCCGCTCATTTTCATCTCTTCAATCA
    GAATTCACCAGAATCGAACTCGTTTTACAATACGGCTTGGAACAACTATCCGTTTCAAATATCCCCAACTTATCCCATAC
    AAAATCTACCGGATTCAACAATCAACTGGACAACAAACAATCAAATTCCAAGCAGCAATTTAGTTTTTGATCCCTGGAGC
    TGTAAATCAAATCTTAATCTTCCTCCGATTAATGAATTCGGTTCCAATTGCGATGTCAGCAGAGAGTGTGTGAACTGTGG
    AGCTAGCAATACTCAGTTGTGGTCCCGGGATAATTCTGGCTATTATTTGTGTGATGAATGCGACAGGTTCTCTCAAAACA
    ACAGTAGAAACCTCGAAAAACTACCAACGAATCAAGTCTCATCAAGTACCGAAAATGAGTTCATGAAAAAATCCAATGCC
    AACTTTCAACAATATGGAAAAAGATCCGACCTCGAATGCAGCAATTGTAAAATTACCAAGACTTCTTTATGGAGAAGAAA
    CAACGAAGGAGAACCTGTCTGCAATGCTTGCGGCTTGTATTATAAATTACATAAGTCTCTAAGACCTCTTTCAATGAGGA
    AAGAAGGAATACAAACAAGGAAAAGAAAACGGAAAACACAAATGAAACCGGTTTCCACTCATATTGCCAATAATCAAAAG
    GTGCCGTCTTCAGAATCGTCATCAGAACAAAATCAGTTTATAAACACTGTGAAATCAAGTGAAAATTGCTATAACATGAT
    TTCTGAAAATTCTCCAACATATATGCCAAATATATCAGTCCAGCCCTTCAATCACATTCTGAACTCCAGCCAATATCAAT
    TCCAATCTACAGAAAATCCCATTAATCAATCATATTTAAATTCCTCAATCAAAAACAGCAATCCCTTTTACGATTCCGAA
    AGTATACTTTATTCCTACAACAATTCAAACAAAATCAAAGATGAGCCCCTATTATCCATGGACAACGAACCGAAGCCCTA
    TTCCTCAATCAACGAGAAAATTGACGTCAACTCCATAGTGAGAATTAATGAAATCTCAAACAATTCGAATTCGAGTTAAT
    TATTCTGATCTACTTTTTAATTATATATTTAAGAACCGTATATACTTCGAAATATAATTTTAATGATAAAATTTTATATC
    TAAAAAATGTAATTTTTAAGTGCGAATTATTAAGTATGCATTTAAATAGTGCAATTATTGTGGTAGTTATTTTTATTACT
    AAATAAATGTTGTTTGTAAATTCGAGAATTTGT
    >SMED30027428 ID=SMED30027428|Name=forkhead box A-1|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=2149bp
    ATCACTTGGTGCTGCTTTTTGCCCCGATAAATCTCTCGGTGCTCCAAAATTTGTGTAAGCGAGCAAAAGATGATTGGGCA
    ATTTCTAGCACGTCATTCGGCAACGATGTTTACAAGTTTCTCTGATTGGATGATAAAGTAGAAACTTTCCGAAAATGAAA
    CTTCTCCGAACATGCGCATACCGACTGAAAATTAACTCTAAGCCAGCCAATGGAATTGAAGCAAAATTCAAGAGAATATT
    AATTGACTTCGCGAATGAACTCAAATTTTCTATTGGCGTATTGTGTGTGCCTCATTGTGAGTGGTTGCGATCGCATCTCA
    AATTATTTACACACAAAAAAATAACGCACACAGACATTGAATAGATATATTTGATCAAGTCAATATCACAATGTCAATAT
    TAGCTTTTTCTGAAGAAAGAAGACGAACTAGAAGAAAAACAACAACGAAATAGATTCGATAAGGCTACTGAGCGATTTTC
    ATAATCTAAATATTATTTTATTATTGATACGGACAAAAATTGGTCTTTTACCAAGTACTACTAGATTGTTGATAAAGAGA
    GGTTATTTAGATGCTTGGAAAAAATCCTTATGAAACTGCAATGAGCAACGTGTATTCTCTACCTCCGGGAGGTTCTATTT
    ACAATATGAACCCGATGAGTATATCATCAGCTGGCTACAACTCTCAACAAGTATCAACACTATCGTTGAACTTGACCGGA
    ATCGGACCTCATTCATTAAGCCCAATGAGTGCAAGCATGTCGGGTATAGCTGCAATGGCCGGTGGAATGAGACAAGGTCT
    TGAGTTGGGTCTTGGTAGAAGTGATAGTCCAAGAGATAAAAATTCAATTTCCAATAACAACCGACCATATCAAAGAAGTT
    ACACTCATGCCAAGCCTCCATACAGTTATATAAGTTTGATAACAATGGCGATTCAAAATTCTCCAGTAAACATGTGCACT
    CTATCGGAGATCTATCAATTCATTATGGATCATTTTCCATACTATCGTCAAAATCAACAGCGATGGCAGAATTCGATTCG
    ACATTCTTTGTCCTTCAACGATTGCTTTGTTAAGGTTAGTAGAAGCCCAGAAAAACCAGGTAAAGGCTCATATTGGACCT
    TGCATCCTCAATCAGGTAACATGTTTGAAAACGGTTGTTATCTCAGAAGACAAAAGCGATTCAAAGATCCACACAGAGAA
    ATCGGCAGACAGAGTCAAAGAGCTGCCACTGGTCCTGGATCAAATGTCACAGAAAACAATCACGACAACGCATCGCAAGA
    AGCTAGTGATAACGCAGAAAGTGATACGAAACCCAACATCAAGCAACTTGATTTATCAAGCGATCTCTTAACTAATCAAG
    GTCATAATATTAAAAATACTAATCCAACTTCTGTTAGTCAGAGTTGTTCGATGTTTCATCGGAAAAAGGAAAACTGCTCA
    CCAGTAGAAATGAAATTGAATAACCAAAACCAACAATCAAACCAGCAAGAACATCCACAAATCCATTACAATCCCAATCA
    GCAATTCTACTCAAATCAGCAAAACATTTTCCAACAAAGTTCTCTTGATCATTACAGTCTATTAGCATCCGATGATCCTC
    TTGGTCAAGGTATGCACTTGCCACCAGGTGCAAATAGTGTTTTCGGACTTTACGGGGCACATAACTTACCAAACGATGAT
    CAAATTTCAGTGTCATTACCATCGATATCCTTATCCGGACATCCGTATGACAATTTATCAACAGCAATGGCATATCAATA
    TGAAGCATCTCAACACAATTCTTCATTACTAACGACAAGTAATCCGTTCTCAATAGATCGTTTGATGCATCCAAGACTAG
    TCGCTGCAGCGATGGGGGTCAGTCCCCATGATACTCTATACGCAGGAGCTACCGGCCCATCAGTTGATCTAGAACACATG
    AAATACTACTCAAACTACAACAATGTGCCTCCTTATTCCTCTGCAATGTCTGACTACTACAAATATGTACAAAATCCTCA
    GCCGGGCAACAGCGACATGAGTCTTTGAATTGAGTCCATTGAAGTCTACGGCAGTTTCCTCGAAATTTCACATTCAACCA
    GATGTTTATCGCCTAATATAAAGCTGTGTTTTTTTATTTATTTACAATTAAATCTTTGTACAAGAGATC
    >SMED30005748 ID=SMED30005748|Name=HNF4|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=3066bp
    GAAGAATAACAAAGAAATTTATTGCCAAACTAAAATACCCGGCCTATTTCATCAAAAAAAAAACAATCAAAAACACAAAT
    CGCTACGAAAACTTGTATAAAAGATTCACATTAAAAGTCATCAATATTCCTCTTTTTTAAAGACTGATGATTCAGATTCT
    TGGATCCGAATGGGGTGATCTGTTAGGAAGTGAGCTGTTGACGAGATAGCTGAATAGTTTGATCTGGAATTGTGCTGTTG
    GTTCGCTTCCGATGATCTGTTGGCGATTGATTGAATTTGGCAGTTTTCTATCGGCGAGTTTGGAAGCGACTTGGTATAGG
    CCACAAGAAGCGACGGATCAACGACATTTTGAGTGGAATTCACAGAAAGAGCTGGGTGGATTAGGTCATCTGAATTGGAA
    GAATTTGAGCAGTTATGATTTGCGTCACTGTTATAGGCGTATTTTGACTGGTTGATCATGGGGAACCCTTGATCAAGGTT
    GACCAAGAAATGGCTGGTATCCTGTGATAAATTGGAATGCTGATAAAGATTGATGGAATCATTGACGCATGAAAACAGAG
    AAGGAACGCCGACTCTTTCATTTTTCAGCATCATCCCATCGCTGTTGATTATCATACCGAAGTTGCTATTGTCCTGGGAA
    TTTTGCTGCATTATTTCAGTTCCTTGATTAACAAAAGCTCGATATATATTTCCTGAAGGCATCGACGTAGAACTTGGCAA
    ATATGCACTCCATATTTTTGAGGCCGCTTCAGGTGATATGTTTTGGTTGTTGATATTGAGTAGGACACTGTCTGGCATGA
    AAGGGGGAATTCCGTAGCAGTCCTGGTAAGTATATTTCGGTGAGGAAATCCTGTGGGAGTTAATTATATCCATGGAATCG
    TTTTGATTATTGTTATTGTTCCCATCTGTTTCTGGATCTATGCTGAATACCCCTGGTGGATTGTCACCCAATAATGTTTC
    AGATAACAAGCTATCAATCTCGGCTAATCCTGTCATTTTCATGAACTCGACCTTCTTTACCATCAGCTGGGTGACCAATC
    TCAGATCAGGAATTGTCAGCAGCAATTCCCCGAATCTACCCGGCTTGTGGTATTGCTTGTCATTCATGTGGTTCATCAGG
    TCCATTTGTATTTGGTATCGGCATCGTCTCACGAACTCCTTGCCAGACTCGCTGACTCTCGGATCAAAAAATACGATCGC
    TTTCAAACAAGCGAATTCTGCGTCATCCAATTGCAATTCTCGCAGCGGAATGAACAGGTCGTCAAGGATGTGACTGGCTA
    TTTCAGCGAAATGTTTGTCACTGGAGTTCCTACTGATGATAAGATTGTTTCCCAATAATAGCACATCGTCTTCGTCCAAT
    TGAAACGACCGCCTTATTACTCCAAGAATTAGAATTTCTCCCGCGTGTGCTTTTAAAAGGGAAATTTGATCGCTCAAGTT
    TAACTGTGAAAAACAAGGCAAAGACTTTGCCCAATTCACTAGAAGAAATAACTGATTTTTCATGGACTCGCAAACATCAG
    GCACATCGGCATATCTGTTCATGTATTCCTGAGGATTCGGGGGCTTTTGTATTGCAACCCTTTGCTCGGCCTGCATCAAC
    TGAGAAATGGAGAGAATGACATTCGGAGGAATATCATCAAACGACGATCTTCGAGTACTGATCCTATCTCGTTCATTTTG
    AACCGCTGCTCGCTTCATTCCTACAAGAATGCATTTCTTTAGCCGACAATAACGGCATTGGTTTCGTTTATCCTTGTCCA
    TTTTACAATTCCGATTGTACTGGCAAGTGTAGTTATTCTTCTTCCTCACTGACCTCCGAAAAAATCCTTTACAACCGTCA
    CACGAGAAAGCCCCATAATGTTTTCCTGTAGCTTTGTCACTGCAAATGAGACAGAGTTGATTGTTTTCCATTCCTTCTGG
    TCCCGACGCGTTAGACGCATAGACTTCATGTTGTTGCGAGGACACTGAAACGAAAACTATTTGATAATATTTGTACAAAA
    CAACTGACAGATGGTTTCGGAAAAGGTTCAATGTTCAGCCATAGTTCAGCGAAAGGTCAAATTCCTGAACTACTATTTCA
    AGGTATAAATTTGAATATATTGGTTTTGCCTCGTGCTAACAAAGTCCAGAAATATAATAAGCAAAGTCTGAATCGTGTAC
    TTTGGATTTCTAGCCAGGGGCACACAATAACCTATATTTAATAGCAGTTCATTGCGTTCACTCGTTATTTCTCCGACTGA
    ACTGCATTGCAGGAGGATCCGCAACCATGGAGATTTCATAATTATTATCAAAATGATAATAATAATAATTATTATGAGGT
    ATTGTAAAAGAAAACGTAACTCACTTTCACTTTCCAATGGATATTGCATCGAGGAAGCGTTGCTGGAAATGGAAATCGGA
    GCTGAATTGCTAGTCAATAGTTGATAGGAGAATGCTGGATTGAGGTTCGGATGCTGGGTAGACGTCATATAGAATTGGCT
    CGACGGATTCGGTAAAATTATGGTGAAGTTTACAATCGAAGCTCAGATATAACGTATTATAATGAAGTATTATTAATAAA
    CTGCAAGTAACGTGCGCGCATTCTGAAGTGGTTGATTGAGAATAATCAGTTCTTATTCGACAAATTCAGATAAAAAAGGC
    ACCACTCGAATTGTTCAGCTGCGTCATGTGAATGCCGGAACGTTGTGCGTTGGCTGTTGGCAGATCAGCGCTCCGTGTTC
    ACTGCAATCCGGATACACCAGACCACTTGAAATCGTTGCGAATTCAGCGTGTCGAGTGCATTGTGCGAGATCAGTATCGG
    TGTGTATGTGTGTCTGCCTGTGTGCGTGTGGATGTGTGTGCTTGTCGAGTCGGTTGTGTGTTTATGAGTGTAACTGTGTC
    GATTTGGTCGAATGCAGTAGCAGATAGCTGAAATGCGATTGTTCCTATTTTTCATTTAATATTGTTTTATGTTTTGTTTC
    TATTTTTATAATTTAATTTATCAGTTTTTGTTTAGATTATGCAATCATTGTTTAATTTATTTTTGTCAATTTAAAATTTA
    TTATTAATTAAATTATTATAATTATT

     

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    ADDITIONAL REFERENCES:


    Forsthoefel, D.J., James, N.P., Escobar, D.J., Stary, J.M., Vieira, A.P., Waters, F.A., and Newmark, P.A. (2012). An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians. Dev Cell 23, 691-704.

    Forsthoefel, D.J., Park, A.E., and Newmark, P.A. (2011). Stem cell-based growth, regeneration, and remodeling of the planarian intestine. Dev Biol 356, 445-459.

    Martín-Durán, J.M., and Romero, R. (2011). Evolutionary implications of morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the blind gut in the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Dev Biol 352, 164-176.

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