digestive system



Overview

Digestive System (PLANA:0000049). Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.

 

digestive system

 

back to top


 

Tissue Description

 

Four yolk-laden primitive gut cells associate with the temporary embryonic pharynx (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 B-D, black arrows), and can frequently be detected in unstained specimens. Yolk ingested through the temporary embryonic pharynx collects in the central gut cavity.

Definitive gut development may begin as early as S4, with the production of isolated phagocytic cells that gradually form a continuous, honeycomb-like lattice beneath the embryonic wall (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 B-D). Embryonic gut markers, identified amongst the S4-S5 enriched transcripts, were expressed in gut tissue through S6 and were subsequently downregulated as branching morphogenesis proceeded in elongated S7 embryos (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 A-D). The progenitor population(s) for embryonic gut cell type(s) are not known.  These early intestinal cells may represent a transient population, turning over during S6-S7, or they may persist, changing their expression signature as morphogenesis proceeds.

Expression of gamma (g) class neoblast transcripts, including gata456a and hnf4, was detected in the temporary embryonic pharynx during S2, and in scattered cells in the embryonic wall during S5 (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 E-G, Figure 6 B); a similar expression pattern was reported for Spol gata456a (Martín-Durán and Romero, 2011). The anarchic distribution of putative gut progenitors during embryogenesis is reminiscent of the systemic distribution of gut progenitors in the adult parenchyma, as well as the uniform incorporation of neoblast progeny into the adult gut during growth and homeostasis (Forsthoefel et al., 2011). In the adult gut, neoblast progeny incorporated into both new and preexisting gut tissue during regeneration, and morphallaxis of the gut required stem cell activity (Forsthoefel et al., 2011). Branching morphogenesis begins during S6-S7, as gut cells ingress from the anterior dorsoventral margins of the embryo, forming the secondary branches (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 F-G, I). As in the adult, branching morphogenesis may proceed locally and may be reliant upon the incorporation of differentiating progeny, and/or remodeling of differentiated gut tissue.  Separation of the two posterior gut branches also occurs during S6-S7, concomitant with the development of the definitive pharynx and a medial, muscular septum running from the pharynx pouch to the posterior pole (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 F-G, I). Many molecular markers of adult gut tissue are expressed during S5 or later (Forsthoefel et al., 2012; Wurtzel et al., 2015), suggesting that gut maturation is a gradual process (Figure 1 – figure supplement 13 H). Newborn hatchlings are born with yolk-filled intestines, and it may take up to one week to completely digest and clear the yolk from the gut. 

 

back to top


 

Figures

Figure 1 – figure supplement 13: Molecular markers for the developing gut

A, E, H: Average RPKM values per embryo for A) embryonic gut transcripts cathepsin L1-like (CTSL-like: SMED30023322), lysosomal alpha glucosidase-like (LYAG-like: SMED30028442, SMED30008977), macrophage-expressed gene 1 like-3 (MPEG1-like-3: SMED30015696), E) gamma (g) class neoblast transcripts (gata456a, hnf4, prox-1, nkx2.2), and H) transcripts with enriched expression in the adult gut (Forsthoefel et al., 2012; Vu, 2015; Wurtzel et al., 2015) Yolk (Y), S2-S8. Early embryonic gut transcript expression was validated by WISH on staged embryo collections. H: Adult gut-enriched transcripts with enriched expression during S5 and/or S6 (top, n=146), or S7 and/or S8 (bottom, n=292).  Adult gut enriched transcripts are flagged in lists of S5-S8 enriched transcripts (Figure 1 – source data 5, Figure 1 – source data 6, Figure 1 – source data 7, Figure 1 – source data 8).  74% (n=1112) of the intestinal phagocyte enriched transcripts reported in (Forsthoefel et al., 2012) were identified in the smed20140614 transcriptome; 129 (11%) of the cross-referenced transcripts were enriched during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8. 90% (n=425) of the gut-enriched transcripts reported in (Wurtzel et al., 2015) were identified in the smed20140614 transcriptome; 44% (n=186) of the cross-referenced transcripts were enriched during S5, S6, S7 and/or S8. 

B-D: CTSL-like (B), LYAG-like (C) and MPEG1-like-3 (D) expression (blue) in the temporary embryonic pharynx (S2-S4), four primitive gut cells abutting the temporary embryonic pharynx (S4), and yolk-laden gut cells forming an irregular lattice beneath the embryonic wall (S5-S6). Expression of these markers was downregulated as branching morphogenesis proceeded during S7. 

F-G: gata456a (F) and hnf4 (G) expression (blue) during embryogenesis, S2-S8.  Staining was detected in the presumptive temporary embryonic pharynx (S2), and was later detected in scattered parenchymal cells from S5 onwards. Expression of both markers became more prominent in the developing gut over time, especially after branching morphogenesis was underway during S7-S8.

I: porcn-A expression (blue) during embryogenesis, S2-S8. Hazy, faint expression was detected in the gut during S5-S6, with increasing signal following the initiation of branching morphogenesis during S7-S8.

B-D, F-G, I: Anterior: top (S6-S8). O: oral hemisphere. A: aboral hemisphere. D: dorsal. V: ventral. Black arrowheads: temporary embryonic pharynx.  Black arrows: primitive gut cells. Red arrowheads: definitive pharynx. Scale bars: 100 µm.

 

 

back to top


 

In Situ Hybridization Data

Smed IDAccessionNameAliasEnriched during stage(s)Tissue/PatternImages
SMED30027428AFJ24799.1forkhead box A-1foxA1definitive pharynx, definitive pharynx progenitor cell, digestive system, embryonic digestive system, temporary embryonic pharynx
SMED30007290AFF18488.1GATA456gata456adefinitive gut, digestive system, embryonic digestive system, gamma neoblast, temporary embryonic pharynx
SMED30005748AFF18489.1HNF4hnf-4definitive gut, digestive system, embryonic digestive system, gamma neoblast, temporary embryonic pharynx
SMED30025591ABW97518.1porcupine-like proteinporcn-Adefinitive gut, digestive system

 

back to top


Sequences

smed_20140614 transcript sequences for genes validated by in situ hybridization (above).

>SMED30025591 ID=SMED30025591|Name=porcupine-like protein|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=3526bp
TTCCGATCTTTTCTTTTGAAATTTTTGAAATTTTAAATAAAATTAATGACAAAGGCAGAAAATCAGAGAACTACTAAAGC
ATCCGACTTCAAATTTGGAAAAGAAATCGGCCATGGCTCGTTCTCAACTGTAATGATAGCTAAGGAAATTTCTACCAATA
AACATTATGCTGCAAAAATTATTGATAAAGTTTTTATTTCTAAACAGCGAATGGTTAATACTGTTATGATTGAAAAAGAA
GTTCTCCGAAGAATAAATCACCAGTTTTTTGTATGTCTCAATTATACATTCCAAGATCCAGAGAGATTGTATTTTATTAT
ATCATATGCCGAACGAGGAGAACTTTTATCTCATTTAACAAGACTTTCGTGTTTTGATTTAACGTGCACACAATTTTATT
CCGCGGAAATTATTCTTGCATTAGAATATTTACATGGAATTAACGTTGTTCATCGAGATATAAAACCAGAAAATATTTTA
CTGAGTGAAAATATGCATATAAAAATTTGTGATTTTGGCAGTGCAATTATTATCGATAAACCAGATCTCAAGCCTTCTTC
TTTTACAGGTACAGCTCAATTCGTTTCTCCAGAAATGCTGGGATTCAGTAAAGAAACACGTGACAATAGCTATTCAGATG
AACCGAATTCTGATTCAGAGGAACATAGCGAAATTGAAGTTAAACGAACTAGTTCACCTGATAATTCTAGGGAAATATTA
TATCTAATGGACTTCTGGGCATTAGGATGCATCGTCTATCAAATGTTGTCTGGACGAATGCCATTTCACGTCAGGCATTC
ACGGCATGAATATGAAATTTTCCAAAAGATCCGAAATTTAAAATATGAGTTTCCGGTTGGGTTTGATGATACTGCTAAAG
ATTTTGTCTCTAAACTTCTTGTATTGAATCCACTGGAAAGATTAGGCAATCCATCCGATGGAAAGCACGCTGCTTTAAAA
GCCCACCCCCTTTTCCGTTCAATTGATTTCGAAATTATCGGATCACAAAAACCTCCGCTATTACTTCCAAATATTGAGCC
CATTGTTCAAAGTAATTGGGACGAAATTCCTGTTGGTTTTGAAGAAGCATGGAAATTCAATATCAAAAAAGAGTTTCAAG
AAATGGAAAAAGCCGATAAACAAAAATTATTGCAAAACCAAGAAAAACTAAATCCGTTTCATAGATTTGTACGCAATCGA
TTGATCATAAAACAAGGCATCTTGTACAAACGGCGTGGATTATTTACTCGTAAAAGAATGTTTCTATTAACTGAAGGACC
TCATTTATTTTATGTCGACCCCGATGCTATGCAATTTAAAAAAGAAGTCAGTCTAAACTTAATTACTGGCATAGAAGTAA
AAAATGACAAAGTATTTTATATCGTTACTAAAAGGCGAACATATTTTCTCGAAGATCCTTCAGCAAAGGCTGATGAATGG
CGACAGAGTATTGAATCGATTTGTGTAGAATATTATGGATCATTTAAATTATCCCCTGGCACTTGCACTCAAACGCCTCT
AGTTACATCATCTGAATCATAACTTTCGGTTTTATTTAAATTTATTTGTCATATAGAAAAAAATGTGAATTTAACGGTTT
TTAATATAATAATTTAATATTGGTTTGAATTCTTGTTTTTCATTTTAAAATTTAATGGATATAATTTAAATATTTTAATA
AATAAAAATATTCACATTGTTTTAATATTCTCTTTATGTCGTAATTGATAAATGATGCATTGTAAATGTATTTTACAACT
GATCTAAATGAAACCAATAGGAAACGAGTGGTTCGATGTCATGTGAATCAGCATGCAACCAATCATAGTTTTGTGATTCA
TTAAATATATTTTAAATTTTTAAAACAAATTAAATCACTTAATTAATTTTTAGACAATGTCACAATTTTATGGCGGATCC
ACGATATTGGCACCTCTATCGAACGTTATGGGTATACCAGTGGATCAAATTAATTTTATTGTGTGTAGTTTATTGTCAAT
CGGACTGGGTCAAATTATGCGACACAAATTCCCTCCTTCTAAATTGTCAGGAAGTACAAGAGGAATCATAGAAGCATTTT
TTGGAATACTAATTGTTCTTTTCTGCTTCGGATACCAAGTCAAGTATTTGTTACTACAATCAACAGTTTCCTATGTAATA
CTATTATTTTTGCCTTCACAAATATCAGCGCATTTGGTAACGTATTGGTGTATGGCTTTCATGGCGATAGTCCATTTATA
CAGGATGCATTACGATTACGGAGGTTATACTCTCGATATATCTGGTCCGGTTATGATTCAAACCCAAAAATTGACCAGCC
TCGCATTTAATCTTCTAGATGGACATCGAATAAATCAAGGAATAAAACTGCAACAGAGAAATCATGAATCTCACGCTGTG
AAAAAACTACCAGATGCAATCAAGTTTTTCGGTTACACATTCTACTTTCATGGTGTATTAGCGGGTCCTTTTGTATTCTA
CAATGAATATAAAGAATATATCACTGGATATGACGACAAGCATATTCCATGCTCCAAAAAGCAATTATCTTCAGCACTTT
GTTTATCAGTGATCCATGGATTATTAACAGCATATGTCGCACCGCAGTTTCCATATATATTTGTTTGCAGCACCGATTAC
CAACGGATGCATATGACTCGTAGAATAATGTTCACAATGATTTCATTTTTCCTCGTAAGACAAAAGTATTACTTTGCCTG
GTCAATGGTTGAAGCTGGTGCTCTTAGTACCGGATTGGGATATTGTGGAAAGGATAAAAACGGAGAGAATAATTGGTCGA
AAGTGAAAAATTACGATTTCATGGCAATCGAAAGCGGCAGTAGTTTGAAAGTGCTAGTGGACGGATGGAATATTTCCACA
ACAAGATGGCTCAGAGAATTAATTTATGAACGAGCTCCTTTATTCTGTCGGACAATTCTAGTTTTCACCGTCAGTGCATT
TTGGCATGGATTCTATCCTGGATATTATTTGATGTTTTTGACATTTTCTCTCTTTACGTTTTGCGCTAGAACCGTTAGGA
AACACATTCGACCATTGTTCATTGTCAGTCCAATTACACTTCAACTCTATCATGTTCTAACGAAAATATTCACAAATCTG
GCTTTAAATTACGGACAAGGACCATTTTATTTGCTGGAGTTTCAATCGGGACTTTTGTTTTGGAAGCCATATTACTTTTT
CGGACACGTTCTAGCAATGTTCTGCGTATTGACCTTGCAATTTCGGCCGATAATCAACGACAAAGTCAACATAATGAACA
ATGTTTTCACCAGAAAAGCCCAATATCGGTTTCAGAAACTAAAGATCCATTTGCAGAAAAAGTTGAGATGAAATTTTATT
GATTTTGATAATTTATATAAAATATTATAATTTTGTTTTTCGTTTTATTTTTATATCGATGAATTTATGATAAATGCTAA
ATATTCGATCCGGAATGAATTATTATTAATCTGGTTTTTATAATTGTTCATTTTTAATAGTTTTGTTTGTTTTTCGAAAA
TGGCGG
>SMED30007290 ID=SMED30007290|Name=GATA456|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=2033bp
AGGTAAGTGTCGTCATCACAAGTGGCTTTATTATTATCATTTAAATTTTTTATCATATTATCATTGATTGCTTGTTTTCC
TCATTCAAAATTTAACTGATTGTTATCAAGCTCATTTGATAACTCCAAATCTAATTGACACTCATGTAAATATCCCATTC
GAATTTCCGTTCCCGTCCGTAAGATCCACGATCCGACAATGTTTCTCCCATCGGTATTGTCGAATTCTCACCAGAGAAAC
TCACCAATAATGGACATTGTATCACCAAAATCCAACACCAGCAATCTGAATGCGTTGATCACGTATTCGAATTGTCCCAA
CATAGATCTACAGTCGAATGATCTGTCAGTGAACTTGACGAATTCTCAAAACTTCCACGAATTGGATCACAAAACCAATT
ACGGATACAAAGTTTCAAACAACGAGACAAAACTGAATGCTTTTCCATATTTAGCTCAATCGAACTTAACAGATTGCACA
ACAGACATCAGTGGAGATCTGAAAAATCCAAATTCACATCTCAACTATGGAAACGGAATTTCGTTCTCGGAATTTTCGAA
AATGTCCGAAACCAACATCCACGGATATCCGCCATATTGTTTCTCCACTAAACTGTTTCCCATTCCAAATCTACAAGAGA
AATCAATTATCAACGACAACTATTCCGTGAAATCCACCGCCGGAGGCTTTATCACCGAATCGAATGAGCATCAAAACTCT
GTAAATACTGGAAATTCCTACAATTCCAATTTAAGCTCATACAGAACGGTAATTCCCGCTCATTTTCATCTCTTCAATCA
GAATTCACCAGAATCGAACTCGTTTTACAATACGGCTTGGAACAACTATCCGTTTCAAATATCCCCAACTTATCCCATAC
AAAATCTACCGGATTCAACAATCAACTGGACAACAAACAATCAAATTCCAAGCAGCAATTTAGTTTTTGATCCCTGGAGC
TGTAAATCAAATCTTAATCTTCCTCCGATTAATGAATTCGGTTCCAATTGCGATGTCAGCAGAGAGTGTGTGAACTGTGG
AGCTAGCAATACTCAGTTGTGGTCCCGGGATAATTCTGGCTATTATTTGTGTGATGAATGCGACAGGTTCTCTCAAAACA
ACAGTAGAAACCTCGAAAAACTACCAACGAATCAAGTCTCATCAAGTACCGAAAATGAGTTCATGAAAAAATCCAATGCC
AACTTTCAACAATATGGAAAAAGATCCGACCTCGAATGCAGCAATTGTAAAATTACCAAGACTTCTTTATGGAGAAGAAA
CAACGAAGGAGAACCTGTCTGCAATGCTTGCGGCTTGTATTATAAATTACATAAGTCTCTAAGACCTCTTTCAATGAGGA
AAGAAGGAATACAAACAAGGAAAAGAAAACGGAAAACACAAATGAAACCGGTTTCCACTCATATTGCCAATAATCAAAAG
GTGCCGTCTTCAGAATCGTCATCAGAACAAAATCAGTTTATAAACACTGTGAAATCAAGTGAAAATTGCTATAACATGAT
TTCTGAAAATTCTCCAACATATATGCCAAATATATCAGTCCAGCCCTTCAATCACATTCTGAACTCCAGCCAATATCAAT
TCCAATCTACAGAAAATCCCATTAATCAATCATATTTAAATTCCTCAATCAAAAACAGCAATCCCTTTTACGATTCCGAA
AGTATACTTTATTCCTACAACAATTCAAACAAAATCAAAGATGAGCCCCTATTATCCATGGACAACGAACCGAAGCCCTA
TTCCTCAATCAACGAGAAAATTGACGTCAACTCCATAGTGAGAATTAATGAAATCTCAAACAATTCGAATTCGAGTTAAT
TATTCTGATCTACTTTTTAATTATATATTTAAGAACCGTATATACTTCGAAATATAATTTTAATGATAAAATTTTATATC
TAAAAAATGTAATTTTTAAGTGCGAATTATTAAGTATGCATTTAAATAGTGCAATTATTGTGGTAGTTATTTTTATTACT
AAATAAATGTTGTTTGTAAATTCGAGAATTTGT
>SMED30027428 ID=SMED30027428|Name=forkhead box A-1|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=2149bp
ATCACTTGGTGCTGCTTTTTGCCCCGATAAATCTCTCGGTGCTCCAAAATTTGTGTAAGCGAGCAAAAGATGATTGGGCA
ATTTCTAGCACGTCATTCGGCAACGATGTTTACAAGTTTCTCTGATTGGATGATAAAGTAGAAACTTTCCGAAAATGAAA
CTTCTCCGAACATGCGCATACCGACTGAAAATTAACTCTAAGCCAGCCAATGGAATTGAAGCAAAATTCAAGAGAATATT
AATTGACTTCGCGAATGAACTCAAATTTTCTATTGGCGTATTGTGTGTGCCTCATTGTGAGTGGTTGCGATCGCATCTCA
AATTATTTACACACAAAAAAATAACGCACACAGACATTGAATAGATATATTTGATCAAGTCAATATCACAATGTCAATAT
TAGCTTTTTCTGAAGAAAGAAGACGAACTAGAAGAAAAACAACAACGAAATAGATTCGATAAGGCTACTGAGCGATTTTC
ATAATCTAAATATTATTTTATTATTGATACGGACAAAAATTGGTCTTTTACCAAGTACTACTAGATTGTTGATAAAGAGA
GGTTATTTAGATGCTTGGAAAAAATCCTTATGAAACTGCAATGAGCAACGTGTATTCTCTACCTCCGGGAGGTTCTATTT
ACAATATGAACCCGATGAGTATATCATCAGCTGGCTACAACTCTCAACAAGTATCAACACTATCGTTGAACTTGACCGGA
ATCGGACCTCATTCATTAAGCCCAATGAGTGCAAGCATGTCGGGTATAGCTGCAATGGCCGGTGGAATGAGACAAGGTCT
TGAGTTGGGTCTTGGTAGAAGTGATAGTCCAAGAGATAAAAATTCAATTTCCAATAACAACCGACCATATCAAAGAAGTT
ACACTCATGCCAAGCCTCCATACAGTTATATAAGTTTGATAACAATGGCGATTCAAAATTCTCCAGTAAACATGTGCACT
CTATCGGAGATCTATCAATTCATTATGGATCATTTTCCATACTATCGTCAAAATCAACAGCGATGGCAGAATTCGATTCG
ACATTCTTTGTCCTTCAACGATTGCTTTGTTAAGGTTAGTAGAAGCCCAGAAAAACCAGGTAAAGGCTCATATTGGACCT
TGCATCCTCAATCAGGTAACATGTTTGAAAACGGTTGTTATCTCAGAAGACAAAAGCGATTCAAAGATCCACACAGAGAA
ATCGGCAGACAGAGTCAAAGAGCTGCCACTGGTCCTGGATCAAATGTCACAGAAAACAATCACGACAACGCATCGCAAGA
AGCTAGTGATAACGCAGAAAGTGATACGAAACCCAACATCAAGCAACTTGATTTATCAAGCGATCTCTTAACTAATCAAG
GTCATAATATTAAAAATACTAATCCAACTTCTGTTAGTCAGAGTTGTTCGATGTTTCATCGGAAAAAGGAAAACTGCTCA
CCAGTAGAAATGAAATTGAATAACCAAAACCAACAATCAAACCAGCAAGAACATCCACAAATCCATTACAATCCCAATCA
GCAATTCTACTCAAATCAGCAAAACATTTTCCAACAAAGTTCTCTTGATCATTACAGTCTATTAGCATCCGATGATCCTC
TTGGTCAAGGTATGCACTTGCCACCAGGTGCAAATAGTGTTTTCGGACTTTACGGGGCACATAACTTACCAAACGATGAT
CAAATTTCAGTGTCATTACCATCGATATCCTTATCCGGACATCCGTATGACAATTTATCAACAGCAATGGCATATCAATA
TGAAGCATCTCAACACAATTCTTCATTACTAACGACAAGTAATCCGTTCTCAATAGATCGTTTGATGCATCCAAGACTAG
TCGCTGCAGCGATGGGGGTCAGTCCCCATGATACTCTATACGCAGGAGCTACCGGCCCATCAGTTGATCTAGAACACATG
AAATACTACTCAAACTACAACAATGTGCCTCCTTATTCCTCTGCAATGTCTGACTACTACAAATATGTACAAAATCCTCA
GCCGGGCAACAGCGACATGAGTCTTTGAATTGAGTCCATTGAAGTCTACGGCAGTTTCCTCGAAATTTCACATTCAACCA
GATGTTTATCGCCTAATATAAAGCTGTGTTTTTTTATTTATTTACAATTAAATCTTTGTACAAGAGATC
>SMED30005748 ID=SMED30005748|Name=HNF4|organism=Schmidtea mediterranea sexual|type=transcript|length=3066bp
GAAGAATAACAAAGAAATTTATTGCCAAACTAAAATACCCGGCCTATTTCATCAAAAAAAAAACAATCAAAAACACAAAT
CGCTACGAAAACTTGTATAAAAGATTCACATTAAAAGTCATCAATATTCCTCTTTTTTAAAGACTGATGATTCAGATTCT
TGGATCCGAATGGGGTGATCTGTTAGGAAGTGAGCTGTTGACGAGATAGCTGAATAGTTTGATCTGGAATTGTGCTGTTG
GTTCGCTTCCGATGATCTGTTGGCGATTGATTGAATTTGGCAGTTTTCTATCGGCGAGTTTGGAAGCGACTTGGTATAGG
CCACAAGAAGCGACGGATCAACGACATTTTGAGTGGAATTCACAGAAAGAGCTGGGTGGATTAGGTCATCTGAATTGGAA
GAATTTGAGCAGTTATGATTTGCGTCACTGTTATAGGCGTATTTTGACTGGTTGATCATGGGGAACCCTTGATCAAGGTT
GACCAAGAAATGGCTGGTATCCTGTGATAAATTGGAATGCTGATAAAGATTGATGGAATCATTGACGCATGAAAACAGAG
AAGGAACGCCGACTCTTTCATTTTTCAGCATCATCCCATCGCTGTTGATTATCATACCGAAGTTGCTATTGTCCTGGGAA
TTTTGCTGCATTATTTCAGTTCCTTGATTAACAAAAGCTCGATATATATTTCCTGAAGGCATCGACGTAGAACTTGGCAA
ATATGCACTCCATATTTTTGAGGCCGCTTCAGGTGATATGTTTTGGTTGTTGATATTGAGTAGGACACTGTCTGGCATGA
AAGGGGGAATTCCGTAGCAGTCCTGGTAAGTATATTTCGGTGAGGAAATCCTGTGGGAGTTAATTATATCCATGGAATCG
TTTTGATTATTGTTATTGTTCCCATCTGTTTCTGGATCTATGCTGAATACCCCTGGTGGATTGTCACCCAATAATGTTTC
AGATAACAAGCTATCAATCTCGGCTAATCCTGTCATTTTCATGAACTCGACCTTCTTTACCATCAGCTGGGTGACCAATC
TCAGATCAGGAATTGTCAGCAGCAATTCCCCGAATCTACCCGGCTTGTGGTATTGCTTGTCATTCATGTGGTTCATCAGG
TCCATTTGTATTTGGTATCGGCATCGTCTCACGAACTCCTTGCCAGACTCGCTGACTCTCGGATCAAAAAATACGATCGC
TTTCAAACAAGCGAATTCTGCGTCATCCAATTGCAATTCTCGCAGCGGAATGAACAGGTCGTCAAGGATGTGACTGGCTA
TTTCAGCGAAATGTTTGTCACTGGAGTTCCTACTGATGATAAGATTGTTTCCCAATAATAGCACATCGTCTTCGTCCAAT
TGAAACGACCGCCTTATTACTCCAAGAATTAGAATTTCTCCCGCGTGTGCTTTTAAAAGGGAAATTTGATCGCTCAAGTT
TAACTGTGAAAAACAAGGCAAAGACTTTGCCCAATTCACTAGAAGAAATAACTGATTTTTCATGGACTCGCAAACATCAG
GCACATCGGCATATCTGTTCATGTATTCCTGAGGATTCGGGGGCTTTTGTATTGCAACCCTTTGCTCGGCCTGCATCAAC
TGAGAAATGGAGAGAATGACATTCGGAGGAATATCATCAAACGACGATCTTCGAGTACTGATCCTATCTCGTTCATTTTG
AACCGCTGCTCGCTTCATTCCTACAAGAATGCATTTCTTTAGCCGACAATAACGGCATTGGTTTCGTTTATCCTTGTCCA
TTTTACAATTCCGATTGTACTGGCAAGTGTAGTTATTCTTCTTCCTCACTGACCTCCGAAAAAATCCTTTACAACCGTCA
CACGAGAAAGCCCCATAATGTTTTCCTGTAGCTTTGTCACTGCAAATGAGACAGAGTTGATTGTTTTCCATTCCTTCTGG
TCCCGACGCGTTAGACGCATAGACTTCATGTTGTTGCGAGGACACTGAAACGAAAACTATTTGATAATATTTGTACAAAA
CAACTGACAGATGGTTTCGGAAAAGGTTCAATGTTCAGCCATAGTTCAGCGAAAGGTCAAATTCCTGAACTACTATTTCA
AGGTATAAATTTGAATATATTGGTTTTGCCTCGTGCTAACAAAGTCCAGAAATATAATAAGCAAAGTCTGAATCGTGTAC
TTTGGATTTCTAGCCAGGGGCACACAATAACCTATATTTAATAGCAGTTCATTGCGTTCACTCGTTATTTCTCCGACTGA
ACTGCATTGCAGGAGGATCCGCAACCATGGAGATTTCATAATTATTATCAAAATGATAATAATAATAATTATTATGAGGT
ATTGTAAAAGAAAACGTAACTCACTTTCACTTTCCAATGGATATTGCATCGAGGAAGCGTTGCTGGAAATGGAAATCGGA
GCTGAATTGCTAGTCAATAGTTGATAGGAGAATGCTGGATTGAGGTTCGGATGCTGGGTAGACGTCATATAGAATTGGCT
CGACGGATTCGGTAAAATTATGGTGAAGTTTACAATCGAAGCTCAGATATAACGTATTATAATGAAGTATTATTAATAAA
CTGCAAGTAACGTGCGCGCATTCTGAAGTGGTTGATTGAGAATAATCAGTTCTTATTCGACAAATTCAGATAAAAAAGGC
ACCACTCGAATTGTTCAGCTGCGTCATGTGAATGCCGGAACGTTGTGCGTTGGCTGTTGGCAGATCAGCGCTCCGTGTTC
ACTGCAATCCGGATACACCAGACCACTTGAAATCGTTGCGAATTCAGCGTGTCGAGTGCATTGTGCGAGATCAGTATCGG
TGTGTATGTGTGTCTGCCTGTGTGCGTGTGGATGTGTGTGCTTGTCGAGTCGGTTGTGTGTTTATGAGTGTAACTGTGTC
GATTTGGTCGAATGCAGTAGCAGATAGCTGAAATGCGATTGTTCCTATTTTTCATTTAATATTGTTTTATGTTTTGTTTC
TATTTTTATAATTTAATTTATCAGTTTTTGTTTAGATTATGCAATCATTGTTTAATTTATTTTTGTCAATTTAAAATTTA
TTATTAATTAAATTATTATAATTATT

 

back to top


 

References

Forsthoefel, D.J., James, N.P., Escobar, D.J., Stary, J.M., Vieira, A.P., Waters, F.A., and Newmark, P.A. (2012). An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians. Dev Cell 23, 691-704.

Forsthoefel, D.J., Park, A.E., and Newmark, P.A. (2011). Stem cell-based growth, regeneration, and remodeling of the planarian intestine. Dev Biol 356, 445-459.

Martín-Durán, J.M., and Romero, R. (2011). Evolutionary implications of morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the blind gut in the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Dev Biol 352, 164-176.

Wurtzel, O., Cote, L.E., Poirier, A., Satija, R., Regev, A., and Reddien, P.W. (2015). A Generic and Cell-Type-Specific Wound Response Precedes Regeneration in Planarians. Dev Cell 35, 632-645.

 

back to top